Prehistoric European stoneprints

Stonehenge landscape is a chalk skin tattoo

The sequence of features in the Stonehenge landscape periphery as revealed by excavations and radar (noting archetypal features):

1 Builder or Taurus; One of two clusters (cluster).
2 Builder or Taurus; A bell barrow; on its axis was a large rectangular feature.
2c Basket or Algol; Bush barrow row on the field edge; and Normanton Down barrows group. Southward lies North Kite enclosure.
4 King or Pisces; A cluster (under fields, near road A303); and Stonehenge; and a long barrow. This axis is opposite type 11 Durringon Walls, the largest feature.

4p Galactic South Pole on a group forming a rectangle (typical of 4 and 5).
5a Priest or Aquarius; Winterbourne-Stoke cluster, varied (varicoloured), large (large).
5b Priest or Aquarius; A barrow and a pit (varicoloured).
6 Exile or Capricornus; Fargo henge bell barrow, near the cursus west end; near the invisible axial centre (ingress); near road A344.
7 Child or Sagittarius; A group of circles; and the Lesser Cursus.
7g Galactic Centre; Cursus centre, and cursus group of bell barrows, and a bell barrow (compare to the Axum terraces, in the Civil Outposts chapter).
8 Healer or Scorpius; Durrington Down long barrow.
9 Healer or Scorpius; A cluster (more typical of 2 opposite); to the north is Larkhill.
9c Basket Lid or Lupus; A cluster and a pond barrow.
10 Teacher or Libra; A circle.

11 Womb or Virgo; Durrington Walls, a large round walled village (interior). Its opposite in this landscape is at type 4 Stonehenge. North-east lies Durrington village.
11p Galactic Pole; Old King barrows; on its axis east is Woodhenge.
12 Heart or Leo; A long barrow south of the Woodhenge series, near the Durrington south road; and a large feature, perhaps concentric, near road A345.
13 Heart or Leo; A circle?, near road A345.
14 Mixer or Cancer; A small cluster.
15 Maker or Gemini; New King barrows row; ENE lies Vespasian’s camp; east lies Amesbury; SW lies the river end of the procession.
15g Gate near the Avenue past the 15 row; and as a bell barrow.

The ecliptic pole or axial centre is apparently unmarked as usual. The celestial pole is on a barrow. The celestial south pole may be west of the invisible axial centre, placing summer in Leo-Cancer, thus spring and the cultural inspiration in Age Taurus-Aries, about BC 1500, long before most of the work (see dating issues below).

After Roman evacuation, Britons harked back to Celtic culture and sites (Fergusson 1872), but with a Roman eye for civil grandeur. Their Norse conquerors built most of these structures, perhaps with Pict labourers, as they did in Orkney (Wickham-Jones 2011). Stonehenge’s last phase expresses Age Aries-Pisces (see the Stonehenge monument analysis above), thus the last work may be after BC 80.
The general theme in the Stonehenge and Durrington Walls landscape is type 4 King or Pisces, typical of sun, monuments (see Tarot trump 4:19, Sun, with twins at a wall or furnace), fields, and kings (see Tarot trump 4, Emperor). The Tarot is not Celtic or Norse, but medieval Italian, and capable of any styling…………[extract from the book]

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Nazca plain geoglyphs speak structural grammar

Main group of Nazca geoglyphs (after National Geographic. Stoneprint labels and axial grid by Edmond Furter). Straight lines were removed for clarity. North is left.

Hundreds of criss-crossing trapezium lines form a kind of ‘forest’ over the core area of the Nazca geoglyphs. The character figures are in continuous-line format, indicating a well-developed style, perhaps based on textile weaving crafts, or to enable processions. Their ecological themes speak of climate change. Here is the peripheral sequence of characters in the Nazca core area is (noting archetypal features):

1 Builder or Taurus; Spiral A (twisting).
2 Builder or Taurus; Spiral B (twisting), due west of the axial centre.
2c Basket or Algol; ? and ?, directly between 2 and 3, off the grid as the c-types usually are.
3 Queen or Aries; ? near small trapezoids (3 Aries Triangulum, knife).
4 King or Pisces; ? near an orca whale (fish, or decan Pisces Cetus, Whale). None of these figures are to any astronomical scale or orientation, and thus archetypal.
4p Galactic South Pole; End (juncture) of a distinct set of parallel lines, aligned to a distinct small rectangle.
5a Priest or Aquarius; Alga sea-bird, long, large (large).
5b Priest or Aquarius; Condor (varicoloured), spread-eagled (hyperactive), large (large). To its south, on a hill among water flow lines, lies the halved man, with a tailcoat head (of type 5c).
6 Exile or Capricornus; Spider, long rear leg, near the centre (ingress).
7 Child or Sagittarius; Small cluster of lines, perhaps looped (bag, rope); also the spider’s ball and thread (rope, bag).
8 Healer or Scorpius; Head outline over a pair of large hands (strength feat), adjacent to a tree (pillar); also a large flower (unfolding is more usual at type 7) on a thick stem (pillar).
9 Healer or Scorpius; Lizard (more typical of type 10), arms forward (bent forward).
10 Teacher or Libra; Iguana, stiff-legged (staffs or pillars, more typical of type 9).
11 Womb or Virgo; Spiral D; and a frigate bird (off the image frame) carrying a large bag (womb, like the stork of Western myth).
11p Galactic Pole; Heron beak (limb joint).
12 Heart or Leo; Bee or insect.
13 Heart or Leo; Spiral C.
14 Mixer or Cancer; ? near the centre (ingress)
15 Maker or Gemini; Pelican?, diving, with a large dewlap (bag).

Galactic polar markers are outside the irregular equator of types, an unusual feature. There is no horizontal axis, since the figures are all differently oriented. The celestial poles may lie north-south of the axial centre, placing summer in Leo-Cancer, thus spring and the cultural inspiration in Age Taurus-Aries, about BC 1500, long before the work as usual.

The general theme of the Nazca geoglyphs could be type 8/9 Healer or Scorpius, typical of pillars (here a tree of life), trance vision, healing, ritual, and strength (here as large hands).

The stoneprint analysis score of the Nazca geoglyphs map is 16/25 attributes, 16/16 axial points, 2/5 polar markers, 2/4 thematic features; total 37/50, minus 5 extra features off the grid; total 32/50, or 64%, just above the average range……………. [see a revised scoring formula in later posts] …………..

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Stoneprint introduction

Stoneprint confirms rock art structure

Prof Emmanuel Anati (2004) had noted a combination of innate compulsion, and communicative development in rock art, linked to economic complexity levels. However he also noted that some stylistic elements seemed cyclic.
Anati’s challenge to the World Archive of Rock Art (WARA) was ambitious;
“The study of patterns in the grammar and syntax of prehistoric art, in worldwide documentation… of complete assemblages. Single figures, like single words, do not allow interpretation of cognitive process.”

Anati had called for:

• Global rock art data;
• Separated into five economic phases;
• Distinction between figurative, symbolic, geometric, and psychogram figures;
• Identification of the grammar, syntax, or structure of composition;
• Identification of common environmental, historic, and cosmic components.
Stoneprint answers Anati’s call, and demonstrates that:
• Art and rock art share the same core content;
• Illiterate cultures and literate civilisations express the same core content in visual and other media, including myth, ritual, and buildings;
• Economic phases are irrelevant to the core content of culture;
• Figurative characters and abstract ‘signs’ are interchangeable (as Anati had also found);
• The syntax, grammar, and structure of composition is a complex universal standard, of five layers;
• Environmental and historic components in art are unreliable;
• Cosmic components in art are inevitable (as Gombrich had found), and innate, thus subconscious;
• Innate compulsion drives cultural expression of archetypal structure, irrespective of theme or culture;
• Communication by means of art is unreliable, even in the artist’s own culture;
• Visual communication in artistic format did not develop, but remains confined to subconscious ‘meanings’, as it was in the Ice Age;
• Styling is cyclic, and mutates by fashion or fads;
• Assemblages, panels, or groups of characters, contain five layers of visual, grammar, syntax, and compositional structure. Single characters or groups of less than eleven, express some archetypes, which are difficult to demonstrate without the context of the standard subconscious ‘composition’;
• Art and other media reveal subconscious cognition. Conscious processes are of minor importance to most cultural media, such as art, myth, ritual, and architecture, since artists could explain only their own conscious rationalisations, of visible themes, and of styling.
There is only one art, and one culture, and we did not invent, design, or develop it. Culture, its media, and its artefacts, are shaped by the natural order of things that precede things. We re-express that order in our works, and thus transform materials into artefacts, as well as into universal structure. Culture is a natural given, just as the periodic table, chemistry, DNA, technology, ecology, and economy manifest themselves, and mutate to their own dictates, and maturity cycles, and interactions with other, equally structured media (what Gunderson labels ‘panarchical discourse’). Conscious thought and free will are overrated, while our subconscious minds and behaviour are underrated in the cultural record………….[order the book Stoneprint at $30 plus postage from Four Equataors Media, via edmondfurter at gmail dot com using Paypal ]……….

Stoneprint introduction

Cosmology is everywhere, not just in the sky

The primary natural expression of structure is in speciation (Tressider 1999). A lion is a lion, a bull is a bull, expressing coherent clusters of attributes. Some animals are universally recognised as archetypes. The animal kingdom offers analogies to other natural features (weather, planets, processes, calendar; and to cultural features (social functions, mythic episodes, rituals).
Yet only some animals express characters in myth, indicating that the animal kingdom alone, including humans, does not form a complete set of
archetypes. Myths, and rituals, time cycles, constellations and buildings to which we attach myths, indicate a mixed set of categories; species, griffins, gender, episodes, postures, skills, functions, status, items, tools, instruments, weapons, emotions and places. Culture imprints various mixtures of these natural and human elements on time, and in the sky. Again, no single imprint is perfect or complete. Constellation stick figures do not have their eyes on an axial grid. Some are out of place, like Libra as Bootes, standing over Virgo, instead of between Virgo and Scorpius. Some do not make good pictures of anything, such as Aquarius (perhaps a badly drawn zebra), or Sagittarius (perhaps a Chariot or Teapot). Stars borrow character from nature and culture. There is no pure or original astronomical ceiling, not even in the sky (see the Senmut ceiling, in the Egyptian chapter). Egypt did not have a rigorous constellation figure tradition (see the mixture of Babylonian, Egyptian, and Greek characters in the Dendera round zodiac, under Great Zimbabwe in the African chapter). In the Dendera rectangular zodiac, many of the Greek iconic figures are on an ocular (eye-to-eye) axial grid, but some are not across from their regular opposites, raising the possibility that there, for once, the axial grid was consciously used, but used with some errors. In polar decans, which are a mixture of gods, pictures, hours, months, and asterisms; the only constant, universal, and thus archetypal elements are the stoneprint layers in each decanal artwork, not the zodiac elements. Decanal paintings all differ, partly due to their inherent optionality …………….[order the book Stoneprint at $30 plus postage, from Four Equators Media, via edmondfurter at gmail dot com using Paypal ]…………

Stoneprint introduction

Alchemical correspondences reveal natural structure

Alchemy is a structural craft, based on geology, metallurgy, herbs and protochemistry.
It enabled the discovery of the periodic table (in phases, separately by the geologist De Chancourtois, by Meyer, and Mendeleev). Many of the technology aims of the craft were realised, including transmuting metals and minerals, such as oil and coal into plastics. Transmuting human nature proved impossible. The alchemical impulse for individual self-improvement is not the same as the evolutionary paradigm of science, which seeks and finds evidence of our former supposed primitive state, and of our current supposed elevated state, among the rags of cultural mutation.
The industrial revolution (see Blake’s London, under Kabalah below) had transformed the spiritual version of alchemy into a consumerist cult of alcohol, pills and drugs, making pharmacy and addiction the main economy worldwide. Consumerism transforms experience and people, but not for the better. Practical alchemy is a perpetual impulse in all people and cultures, expressed in cooking, experimentation, and attempted meddling in the structural expressions of nature, lately via genetic engineering. All crafts apply archetype, but only alchemy and kabalah study the implied structure of things and processes. The spectacular result was chemistry and biochemistry.
The Hermetic dictum, inherited or re-invented from alchemy, stresses “the miracles of one only thing… all things have been and arose from one, by the mediation of one, so all things have their birth from this one thing,” in Newton’s translation of the emerald tablet.
Alchemy, like all the esoteric crafts, is largely an elaborate natural correspondence theory, tested by isolating and ‘tacking’ attributes between different sets or categories of things. Thus our alchemical impulse laid the groundwork for chemistry and physics, which closed the circle by finding predicted elements (including Helium), and eventually photographing particles and waves. Among natural categories, alchemy includes some cultural categories, such as motivations and personality, the domain of astrology (which recently became psychology). Structural anthropology also reaped some of the ‘bread’ that alchemy had once cast on the waters of natural philosophy, by applying correspondences to social behaviour.
Ironically the human sciences now shun multi-disciplinary approaches, because they resemble crafts. Instead, the humanities isolate single classes of things, and apply tests of logic to theorise the parts of each class. Science and esoteric crafts now both suffer from the assumption that most behaviour, and therefore culture and artefacts, are conscious, practical constructs, mastered by conscious skills. This ‘scientific’ paradigm results in correspondence theories, typically of supposed ‘hidden knowledge’ that could be shared, improved, withheld, scrambled, or lost.
However the ‘grammar’ of culture is impossible to use consciously, or to fake, even now that it is revealed as readable in artworks and building sites (see the Commission Impossible section)………… [order the book at $30 plus postage from Four Equators Media, via edmond at syrex dot co dot za, using Paypal ]……

Stoneprint introduction

Structure is the message of all media

‘The medium is the message’, a motto coined by communications researcher Marshall McLuhan, means that each medium, such as art, movies, television, newsprint, magazine, ritual, or buildings, embeds itself in the messages it could convey. Various media thus enable certain messages, and disable others. Each medium forms a symbiotic relationship with its content, and influences how the message is perceived, much like editors and peer
pressure do. My career in trade and technical publishing had taught me that some stories write and sell themselves, while truly new stories are hard to tell, and hard to sell. I have the same task in stoneprint, in demonstrating content that we are not in the habit of seeing in building plans; but rather in the habit of ascribing to imitation of other media, such as grammar from language; stereotypes from astrology; stick figures from astronomy; a grid from geometry; equators and poles form cosmology; sequences from calendars; episodes from myth; altars from ritual; buildings from religion; and time-frames from history. These equations of content and media are pervasive. We are adaptively blind to the axial grid of irregular angles, and irregular radial lengths; to eyes with two constant exceptions; and other quirks in our behaviour. This invisibility confirms that perception is not objective. If we did not see the structure in culture, as demonstrated 130 times in this book, then we see what we expect to see. And we expect media to say what their users intend them to say.
The ‘medium equals message’ phrase was introduced in McLuhan’s book, Understanding Media: The extensions of man (1964). He proposed that we should study media itself, not just the content they carry. Every medium affects society by the content it delivers, restricted or amplified by the characteristics of the medium. Thus we also have a paradigmatic or general bias about what culture is, and about what culture should say about us.
McLuhan’s later book was titled The Medium is the Message, where he views communication as a kind of social therapy. We generate individual therapy in dreams, ‘massaging’ our minds; and we generate collective therapy in myth, legend, and news, as Freud had found earlier. For McLuhan, every medium differently shapes “the scale and form of human association and action”. This view implies that sciences, with their restrictions, formulae and citations, are also cultural media, and thus crafts; and may contain archetypal content invisible to our conscious minds.
McLuhan had also proposed a hierarchy of media: “the content of any medium is always another medium”. Writing carries speech; print carries writing; buildings carry social behaviour. Art appears to carry myth, legend, history, ritual, calendar, concepts, and ideals. However art subtracts the time sequence (which is somewhat arbitrary in the other media), and adds its own visual grammar. Thus art is more like a supplement than a translation (see several versions of Solomon’s Judgement on Art and buildings inevitably add to what each other, and myth and ritual say. They also enable some therapy that other media could not activate. Buildings have predisposed content………..[order the book Stoneprint at $30 plus postage from Four Equators Media, via ‘[edmond at syrex dot co dot za], payment on Paypal …………..