Chemistry layers reveal biology, as typology reveals culture

It requires a high population density, specialization, and specialized equipment to turn visions into theory, and tests, and results, applications, technology, production, sales, and profit. Without all these enablers, new knowledge would gain little currency, and remain ‘secret’. Most people, including scientists, see the maturity cycle of material culture as ‘evolution’ in cognitive ability or consciousness, which it is not

Nazca plain geoglyphs speak structural grammar

Criss-crossing trapezium lines form a kind of ‘forest’ over the core area of the Nazca geoglyphs. The character figures are in continuous-line format, indicating a well-developed style, perhaps based on textile weaving crafts, or to enable processions. Their ecological themes speak of climate change. Here is the peripheral sequence of characters in the Nazca core area is (noting archetypal features).