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natural archetypal structure

Crop circles are natural artworks

Art is more natural, and nature is more artistically creative, than ‘common sense’ and the human sciences assume. Natural forces lavish some structure on inviting surfaces, over and above the necessities of geology, chemistry and biology. Nature is generous with patterns on shells, wings, feathers and skin. One of her canvases for geometry and abstract shapes, are crop fields on chalk, over water-bearing greenstone. Formations of stalk node bends are her signature stamps.

Our doodles, artworks, building sites, myths and rituals, resemble nature at work and at play. Nature and culture both compulsively, and subconsciously, express layers of eternal, archetypal structure that predate creation, and inform ongoing re-creation. When at play, nature uses biological shapes, and what we label ‘abstract’ angles and numbers, as basic as space, time, and what we egotistically label as ‘concepts’.

Her digital doodles express repertoires that resemble ‘our’ geometry and calendars. If crop formations were archetypal emblems, then clusters of formations unfolding over several years in ‘active’ fields are her ‘albums’. It takes about fifteen years of re-plantings and harvests for nature to complete a coherent cluster of about 18 formations in a each active field.

Formations of previous seasons are lost to human memory, but our photographic and satellite scan records could restore the ‘ghosts’ of former seasons. Restorations of crop circle clusters now reveal that nature designs her doodles in four dimensions; two dimensions of the practically flat field; a third of height, including some woven textures; and the fourth of time, where the sequence seems less important than the combined and invisible result. Nature’s landscape doodles vary in scale from a few metres to a few hundred metres, in clusters about equal to the size of a large village.

Crop circles have come to mean many things. Cameras, aircraft, satellite scans, drones and increasing numbers of fake formations have raised crop circles into the partly conscious interplay between nature and culture. If there were any contradictions between natural energy and natural art; or between the sources and motivations of nature and culture; such contradictions are only in our conscious minds.

This article demonstrates that the visual and spatial structure named mindprint, revealed in art in 2014, in building sites and geoglyphs in 2016 (where it is labelled stoneprint), is also present in crop circle clusters (identical in structure to artworks, but here it may be labelled geoprint or ecoprint). We, like natural forces, re-express, or re-create, and not ‘create’ shapes, numbers, pictures and meaning itself (see a recent article on semiotics in rock art; Furter 2017 B). One of the many lessons inherent in crop formations, and in the controversies they invite, is that our understanding of nature, culture, and of our place in nature, is an incomplete understanding.

Extract from Furter, E. 2017. Crop circles are natural artworks. Stoneprint Journal 2.

‘Any apparent contradiction between nature and culture is only in our conscious minds.’

Crop circles form axial clusters over years

Natural forces imprint clusters of crop formations, each with about eight pairs of opposites on an axial grid, at the ‘active’ corp circle sites in Western Europe (see another time lag restoration, of the Windmill Hill cluster, below). The archetypal five-layered structure, including some of the known optional features in the sequence of the ‘characters’ on the grid, and including specific ‘polar’ markers near the centre, unfold over about fifteen years. The clusters become visible, and testable by the new structuralist art analysis named mindprint or stoneprint, when reconstructed on a map of adjoining fields, using an application such as Getmapping.

An accumulated cluster appeared at Milk Hill, a mile north of Alton Barnes, from about 2000 to 2014 (see the image above). Successive clusters are likely to appear there, and at all the active sites. The recent Milk Hill crop circle cluster expressed some of the attributes of all sixteen archetypes; in the standard sequence; with their focal points on a single axial grid (where all the invisible lines between pairs of opposites cross); with two shorter polar axles between a different kind of feature, named junctures or ‘limb joints’.

The shorter of these two axles indicate the precessed celestial poles, or ‘summer-winter’ position, as if the structure were a cosmogram (see the star map below, again with the caution that the structure does not come from the sky, but is also expressed in the sky). The same multi-layered structure was found in cultural artefacts, and demonstrated in hundreds of artworks, rock art works, and building sites, to be the human universal subconscious visual ‘grammar’ of archetype. Expressions of the archetypal structure in nature and culture are named mindprint in artworks (Furter 2014), and stoneprint in building sites (Furter 2016).

Several cultural media re-express archetypal structure (art, geoglyphs as at Nazca, buildings, cites such as Rome and Quebec, myth cycles, and ritual). Similar imprints in nature include the periodic table of elements (see below), and the abstract properties of numbers (see below). In cultural media, nature and human behaviour collude to re-create the natural structure within which our hyper-active species manifest.

In crop circles, culture colludes with nature instead (see the section on fake crop formations below). Thus crop circles are rare examples of natural ‘artworks’, apparently by-products of practical functions such as atoms, compounds, crystals, the plant kingdom, species and stars.

The Midlands crop fields canvas

Milk Hill ridge extends to Walker’s Hill on the west, near Lockeridge road. This hill and nearby Tan Hill are the two highest points in Wiltshire, at 294m. There once was also a white horse on Tan Hill. The cluster is near near Windmill Hill (see its own crop circle cluster reconstruction and structuralist analysis below).

The wider English Midlands area has several ‘active’ or annual crop formation sites. Just south-south-east from Milk Hill lies the double village of Alton Priors and Alton Barnes. South lies East Field. Just south-west lies Stanton St Bernard.

Some of the formations adjacent to the Milk Hill cluster (visible at the edges of the illustration), are probably parts of an adjacent Alton Barnes and Stanton St Bernard cluster. Just south of the two Alton villages lies Honey Street. South-east from Milk Hill lies Avebury stone circle and Silbury mound, also an annual crop circle area, with many man-made features that express a stoneprint of their own (see a map of the Avebury cultural landscape cluster below, or Stoneprint p254 -255).

Using the standard mindprint or stoneprint structuralist caption format (and noting some of the relevant recurrent features in brackets), the sequence of archetypes among the Milk Hill crop circles of recent years is listed below, by archetypal numbering and familiar astronomical labels (with the caution that the formations, and the structure, and numbers, do not emanate or derive from the sky, or calendar, or planets, or from any craft or science, but all express the eternal structure of archetype):

Milk Hill and Alton Barnes -Stanton St Bernard crop circle collage of about 1995 to 2014 (after Borziani 2014. Axial grids by ED Furter). The plan view is more exact than the oblique view below.
Alton Priors crop circle collage from about 1995 to 2014 (after Borziani. Tentative axial grids by ED Furter). This map lies directly east of the Alton Priors map. Adjacent stoneprints (expressions of archetypal structure) are often ‘geared’ to one another by way of mirrored of ‘flipped’ sequences.

 

 

 

 

Milk Hill crop circle time cluster collage reconstruction (after Borziani 2013, in Getmapping format. Type labels and axial grid added by E Furter). Borziani added coloured circles around the restored formations, by his interpretation of the reflexology theory of the seven yogic chakras (wheels). Structuralist analysis demonstrates a much more detailed, layered, universally consistent, and thus archetypal structure. Nature expresses a similar structure in many other media, including chemical elements, DNA, human iris, palm, ear and organ reflexology.

1 Builder; Hexagram of pentagonal stars, 1997 08 08.

1 Builder B; Hexagonal flower over concave flower, 2000 07 01. OFF THE AXIAL GRID, probably fake.

1 Builder C; Triangle of 7-shaped weave (twisted) in standing crop, over two rings of standing crop, in Celtic style, 2011 07 06 and 08, in phases. OFF THE AXIAL GRID, probably fake.

2 Builder; Hexagonal spiral aperture (twisted), on the hilltop. One of the largest formations known, of 409 circles (cluster). A ‘seed of life’ Julia geometry set, of six unfolding to twelve. 2001 08 14? Its position on the hill is further north-east than on the image (left and upward, off the collage image), and its axis down the hillside should be bent, but an oblique perspective better demonstrates the cluster.

2c Basket; Milk Hill prehistoric building site (hidden), perhaps a grain silo (container), formerly with wattle fence, roof and baskets (woven textures). C-types are usually off the grid.

2c Basket B; Seven-sided form, at the field edge.

2c Basket C; Cross of four discs, one with a crescent, space station shape, 2017 (not shown on the collage above, since it appeared later). Fake?

3 Queen; Nine-sided form, petals rectangular, 2001 07 12.

4p Galactic South Pole; Tracks and fields border corner (juncture or ‘limb joint’).

4 King; Hexagonal thorus.

5 Priest; Vesica eye, a hint of colour (varicoloured).

6 Exile; Envelope, or pants, or Y-shaped (tree) tessellation puzzle, 2005 05 29.

7 Child; Hexagonal foldout (unfolding, bag). Another formation in the adjacent field is on the same axis (doubling is more typical of 15 opposite).

8 Healer; Bar-and-dot (in the adjacent field).

9 Healer; Infinity ring, 2008 08 08, hinting at ‘888’, typical of spiritual power (strength). A Venus eight-year cycle began on that date, when the Beijing Olympics started at 8PM. Eight means prosperity and confidence in the East. In gemartia, 888 equals Iesous (Jesus, who was a healer) in Greek. Tarot trump 8, Strength, wears a hat with a wimple, relevant to the Venus cycle as calibrator of erratic solar magnetic cycles (Collins and Cotterell 1995). In the central medallion are eight circles around a central circle. A relief carving of this formation was made on a pebble allegedly found in Mexico. And a small hexagonal circle that lay in the same position.

9c Basket Lid; Tetrahedron?

9c Basket Lid B; Compass, pointing at a former long barrow? (not shown on the image)

10 Teacher; Seven dolphins [pseudo-‘canid’] in hunting ‘school’ (school), vortex (ecology), 2009 06 02. Overlaps 11, as constellation Libra overlaps Virgo. Correspondences between media are due to archetype, not to inter-media rendition.

11 Womb; Central chakra (womb) of swift-shaped bird, 2010 07 25 (the axis goes to the centre of the formation, not to its ‘head’ as seems in the oblique view. See a plan view of the field below, which enables a few corrections to the identifications and the axial grid).

11p Galactic Pole; Head or hand (limb joint) of a small design squeezed between 11 and 12.

13 Heart; Heart chakra (heart) of a curved (rounded) monster with vesica eye, 2012 06 25. Opposite the eye at 5 21.

14 Mixer; Swifts with seven chakra trails, tree-shaped (tree), 2003 08 04? Far out (egress). Below Adam’s Grave long barrow.

14-15 extra; Nine-petal flower with spiked tracks, 2001 07 12, fake?

15 Maker; Sextant with sprung weights or planets, 2009 06 21, 23 and 30 in phases, adding an asteroid or comet near Mars and Jupiter (comet Ison was seen four years later), then adding five trails of architectural shapes (ropes, churn, creation, order). On June 21, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune and a new moon lay between Aquarius and Taurus, around Aries constellation. Two years later, near Mayan calendar 13.0.0.0.0 (2011 06 02), sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Uranus aligned opposite earth and moon in May and June, around Aries-Taurus constellations (their border is in Perseus, at the star Algol, which expresses type 2c Cista. (The axis goes to the centre of the formation, not the ‘head’ as it seems in the oblique perspective. See a plan view of the collage below).

15 Maker B; Tetrahedron polar, 2007 06 07, fake?

15g Gate; Milk Hill white horse geoglyph (path).

15g Gate B; Wasp hatching from a oak gall, hinting at gall ink, 2004 06 25 and 26. Below the white horse. [See an article about this crop circle, gall wasps and ink, on http://www.stoneprintjournal.wordpress.com]

15g Gate C; Three-armed vortex. Below the white horse, fake?

15g Gate D; Hexagonal flower around star of David, below the white horse; fake?

The axial centre, analogous to the ecliptic pole in cosmology, is unmarked as usual. Midsummer marker is on the central custacean formation’s tail (limb joint), analogous to Gemini, placing spring and the cultural time-frame in Age Pisces, contemporary to the work. Age Pisces ended in 2016 (Furter 2014, 2016).

Nature may be less inclined to use time-frames of previous ages, than human artists do, as if we paid homage to the age of the apparent formation of the culture in which we believe our inspiration lies. However about 50 crop circle time-lapse clusters should be re-constructed and structuralistically tested, then compared to the larger database of artworks and building sites, before such differences could be tracked.

Alton Priors crop circle collage from about 1995 to 2014 (after Borziani 2014. Tentative axial grids by ED Furter). This map lies directly east of the Alton Priors map. Adjacent stoneprints (expressions of archetypal structure) are often ‘geared’ to one another by way of mirrored or ‘flipped’ sequences.

All five layers of structuralist expression are subconscious to nature, artists, architects, builders and members of any culture. The number of known archetypal features in this work are probably less than the average of 40% to 80% found in artworks. Abstract geometric characters require rules of interpretation and scoring that differ from figurative art. Since the structuralist study of crop circles is new, some recurrent attributes different from those found in cultural media may yet be identified.

Milk Hill white horse (after Lucy Pringle), with the hexagonal formation in the 15g area in the cluster of recent years. It was probably a fake, positioned to make a good photo.

The Uffington white horse was re-carved and re-chalked many times (photo after Webb Aviation). It may have been a stylized horse or lion in Pictish style. It probably inspired all the other horse geoglyphs in the UK. A Chinese design could be the inspiration.

White horse geoglyphs could imitate a stylish lion

Milk Hill’s white horse was made in 1812 by Robert Pile, of Manor Farm at Alton Barnes. Him or his son may have also made the first Pewsey horse. Pile had paid a painter, John Thorne, twenty pounds to design and cut out a horse image. Thorne contracted John Harvey of Stanton St Bernard, but left with the money…. etc…. See Stonerpint Journal 2.

Nature and culture express archetype

Nature and culture both express archetypal structure at several layers of scale, each in distinctive combinations of elements and shapes. Below is a list of structuralist scale sets, from large to small, with some notes on the way that crop circles express shapes typical of each natural scale level.

Andromeda galaxy is a multiple spiral vortex. This type is usually flat. Lenticular galaxies are even flatter, while globular galaxies are oval spheres.

Barbury Castle hexagonal vortex crop formation, 2007 04 19. Several formations resemble typical galaxies.

Universal scale of innumerable galaxies

Universal scale is variously defined, ranging from ‘infinity’ down to a cluster of galaxies exploding from one another. The universe contains an apparently infinite number of galaxies, most with spiral arms, as if they were residues of rotating manifestations or transformations of matter and energy, or ‘little bangs’. Some crop circles express galactic shapes, or their cultural versions, such as yin-yang discs.

Apparent motion tracks of stars in a binary system, here of Sirius A, Sirius B, around their centre of mass, C. The elliptic circles demonstrate their relative orbits.
Chilbolton radio telescope site formation, including a binary pair image of antenna dishes, 2000 08 13.

Galactic scale of pairs of stars

At galactic scale, millions of star systems, mostly binary pairs, are locked in rotation, some far apart and very slow, some close together and incredibly fast, where the boundaries between matter, energy, space, time and gravity are warped. Our sun probably also has a double, perhaps Sirius in Gemini (which itself is a trio of stars in rotation), or perhaps Alpha Centauri. Some crop circles express star system shapes in binary designs.

Cambridge Gog Magog hills formation may express a ‘Ptolemaic’ earth-centered solar system of apparent orbits, as a maze. The offset from the joint centre may express the alternative, sun-centered view, more familiar to us.

 

Planetary orbits reduced by a logarhythmic scale, in relative positions of 2012 December at one of the Mayan calendar zero points (After Horace Drew). Pluto or one of the many planetoids is in a much earlier or later position.
Avebury Manor solar system formation, 2008 07 15. See an analysis of its archetypal structure, and of hits apparent calendar dating, below.

Stellar scale of solar systems

At stellar scale, many star systems have planets and satellites, as our solar system has. Some crop circles express solar systems on the familiar logarhythmic scale, with rings as orbits, and small circles as oversized planets. Some anomalous markers hint at irregular meteorites or comets among the regular planets. Some formations apparently mimic ‘planets’ or ‘chakras’ (see the reflexology scale below).

Crop circle of earth as a tree and sphere, resembling Norse cosmology. It also resembles alchemical diagrams of elements, such as the Boehme emblems.

Planetary scale of geography and geology

At planetary scale, earth has continental plates, oceans, and circulation patterns of air, water, magma and magnetic fields. Some crop circles express these elemental layers by abstract geometric shapes.

Stockbridge Down spiral, ratchet, sprocket, escape mechanism or lambdoma, 1995.
Mathematical lambdoma model after Pythagoras. Some chemists chart the elements on a spiral with steps down from the simplest and more abundant elements at the centre.
Periodic table of elements (after Peyroux, with type labels added by E Furter). Many chemists chart the elements as a spiral. Rigorous natural structure is now demonstrated in cultural media, implying that perception and expression is innate, allowing thin layers of optionality and styling.

 

Spiral, ratchet, sprocket or escape mechanism in a crop circle (after Wired). Jumps enable storing and releasing potential energy at set intervals. The geometry also expresses Pi (as noted by Mike Reed). Jumps resemble groups in the periodic table of chemical elements, and could express the eccentricity of the elliptic orbits of planets, or calendar adjustments.

Atomic scale of elements

At atomic scale, matter consists of about 100 elements, each formed of atoms with a different number of protons, neutrons and electrons. The sixteen simplest elements, from 1H Hydrogen to 15P Phosphorus (including a ‘blank’ between 5B Boron and 6C Carbon), express the sixteen archetypes in an abstract way. The next six elements, from 16S Sulphur to 21Sc Scandium, express part of the next level of magnitude (including two magnitudes of 5, at 5a Ca Calcium, and 5b Sc Scandium). Some crop circles seem to express atomic structure in geometric terms, but both should be seen as expressions of archetype.

Atoms are made up of nuclear particles, where matter and energy are in constant flux. Sub-atomic properties come in pairs, like charges. Some crop formations express this flux by adding to or erasing some expressions in phases, usually a day or two after the initial formation (see the phases in the solar system crop circle detailed below). Flattened and standing crop often alternate in complex patterns.

Atomic numbers map iso-types

At atomic scale, number and geometry play pivotal roles. Numbers indicate the total of positrons in the nucleus of a stable atom (isotope) of an element. This number is equal to the number of electrons, of negative charge, in the shell or shells of atoms. There is usually also an equal number of charge-less neutrons in the nucleus, thus atomic mass is usually twice the atomic number. This equation applies from 1H Hydrogen up to 20Ca Calcium, which has a mass of 40 (except 4Be Beryllium at a mass of 9 instead of 8). Heavier elements all have a few additional neutrons, and thus atomic masses of slightly more than twice their atomic numbers (electrons have negligible mass). The number before a chemical symbol indicates protons or atomic mass (such as 1H). The number after a chemical symbol indicates a bond of several of the atoms (such as H2).

Archetypes are listed here with their corresponding chemical isotopes, noting some of their typical bonds and properties (and noting relevant archetypal attributes in brackets):

1 Builder; 1H Hydrogen. Flammable in air, eight times more energy than wood. Common in H2O Water, which could split (sometimes expressed by rain or lightning in art), into H and O, Hydroxide. Typical of water.

1:16 Builder; 16S Sulphur. Higher magnitude of 1H. Common at oil sources. Bonds with its lower magnitude 1H to form H2S Hydrogen Sulphide. Used in gunpowder. Of lightning and fire.

2 Builder; 2He Helium, inert gas, second-most abundant element. No taste, colour, odour. Coolant, treats asthma, thins air. Of fuel.

2:17 Builder; 17Cl Chlorine, strives to be Ar18. Higher magnitude of 2He. Steriliser, bleach, releases oxygen in water, reacts with impurities (cluster). Toxic in CCl4, chloroform.

2c Basket; Helium-Lithium and Chlorine-Argon transition.

3 Queen; 3Li Lithium, lightest solid. Against gout, epilepsy, diabetes. Of cures.

3:18 Queen; 18Ar Argon, inert gas, formed by Cl17 Chlorine. Via its opposite 10Ne, argon combines with 11Na to form NaCl. Of salt formation.

4 King; 4Be Beryllium, atomic weight 9. In hard alloys. Of metal.

4:19 King; 19K Potassium, higher magnitude of 4Be. In compounds and organisms (like its opposite, 11 Virgo Sodium). Lost by urine and sweat, from fruit and sea salt, for nerve and muscle action. Of life.

4p Galactic South Pole between Beryllium and Boron; the first extra neutron (juncture)

5 Priest; 5B Boron, antiseptic, nerve poison; thins water. Of cleansing.

5a Priest; 20Ca Calcium, a higher magnitude of 5. In mud and bone (skull, skeleton, tomb). Of kidney stones (varicoloured), mud and bone.

5b Priest; 21Sc Scandium, also a higher magnitude of 5. Oxidising (hyperactive). Elusive, of dispersion.

5c BasketTail as the Boron-Carbon transition.

5c:22c BasketTail or Wing as metals, perhaps the higher magnitude of 5c. From 22Ti Titanium (also used in hard ceramics) to 30Zn Zinc, and their heavier magnitudes including gold. Conductors, electrical, durable. Of shells. Types 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 apparently do not have known higher magnitudes in cultural media.

6 Exile; 6C Carbon, formed in stars by He3 resonating in heat (see Tarot trump 6, Lovers, as three women). In mineral oil and coal, deep seams (ingress /egress); in biology bonds (tree, satyr, double-headed). Versatile life-seed. Of minerals, oil, coal flesh.

7 Child; 7N Nitrogen, 78% of air. Of atmosphere (lungs, air bag)

7g Galactic Centre; Nitrogen-Oxygen transition. Of atmospheric change and evolution.

8 Healer; 8 O Oxygen, usually in O2 bonds. Ozone O3 is made by ultraviolet. Shields red and yellow, allows blue. Most abundant element. Of corrosion, and of typology (see the model below).

9 Healer; 9F Fluorine, hyper-calcification (bent forward), lethal, but trace elements strengthen bones (strength feat, or with a pillar). Of teeth.

9c BasketLid; Fluorine-Neon transition, gas to bone? Of mutation.

10 Teacher; 10Ne Neon, inert gas. In glass. Formed by 11Na Sodium? Outer shell a cube of touching circles, with electrons at most of the twelve touch-points, forming a squared circle. Of shapes.

11 Womb; 11Na Sodium, in compounds and organisms. Strives to be 10Ne Neon (cube). With 17Cl, sodium forms salt. Crucial for land animals, lost in sweat and urine. In seafood, celery, vegetables. Of salt and gestation.

11p Galactic Pole between Sodium and Magnesium, Life and sea. A grail type.

12 Heart; 12Mg Magnesium. Of corrosion and sea (currents, heart).

13 Heart; 13Al Aluminium. Matrix for ceramics and metals. Of oxidisation, soil, inversion, death.

13c BasketHead; Aluminium to Silicon. Of conglomeration, soil to rock.

14 Mixer; 14Si Silica; of clay and rock (time, alchemy). Tarot trump 14, Time, shows an elastic current between two jugs.

15 Maker; 15P Phosphorus; Of urine (bladder, fluid bag)

15:00 Maker; Weightless, free electrons, lower or infinte magnitude of 15. Indestructible elements of creation. Linked to atoms (bag with up to seven electron shells), by bonds (rope). Of material re-creation.

15g Gate; Phosphorus to Hydrogen /Sulphur; H>S, P>S. Of occasional impacts and ice floods.

16 to 21;  See 1:16, 2:17, 3:18, 4:19, 5:20 and 5:21 above.

Elemental properties reveal some of their structural logic in various ways, just as character attributes in myth, art and buildings do. Abstract logic such as mathematics and string theory could describe invisible elements, as it did by predicting 2He Helium before its discovery in the sun and stars, by its spectral fingerprint, and eventual isolation by technology.

Intervals of matter are named ‘periodic’, while intervals of energy are named ‘quanta’. The universe oto-manifests, by continually transforming matter, energy, space and time into one another. Culture is equally ‘emergent’, thus perpetually original, despite its apparently ‘cumulative’ styling. When crossing the gaps between stable isotopes of matter, particles shed or absorb light of predictable wavelengths. Likewise, visual archetypes transform by shedding and adopting traits, such as postures, functions, tools, or species. Some of these properties are described in the stoneprint list, its sequence, its frequencies of probability, its spacing as pairs of opposites, and its tri-polar features. Our conscious minds rebel against the implications of quanta, and the thought that energy forms have internal structure (Connell 2016). Likewise there is no apparent cause for the pervasive structure in cultural media; or for close structuralist correspondences between different media; or for cultural modelling on invisible aspects of natural structure. Our conscious mind also rebels against evidence of its exclusion from our vast range of subconscious behaviour.

Atomic numbers reveal base-16 math

Abstract qualities such as quantity, thus number, also express archetypal structure, involving a series of scales, more complex than a sequence of addition, but rather similar to the progression of electron shells. The search for the inherent properties of prime numbers has occupied mathematicians for centuries (assuming that composite numbers are sufficiently explained by their factors)…. etc…. See Stoneprint Journal 2.

Biological levels of scale (anti-clockwise): Four amino acids combine in pairs with their opposites, as rungs in a double helix, forming genes, which are wound up into nucleosome discs, forming histones, woven into chromosomes, clustered in nuclei, of cells, in organs, in bodies, in species, in ecosystems that re-express archetype.

 

 

The mindprint model of archetypal characters as social functions, with their sequential, spatial and polar relationships (after Furter 2014, 2019). A table of archetypal structure in nature and culture. There are sixteen archetypes (some with two magnitudes), in pairs of opposites, in sequence, which each have optional attributes, allowing variant expressions, in several media, including behaviour, of people, in cultures, in societies, of humans, in ecosystems that re-express archetype.

Biological scale of spirals and ladder rungs

The scale of magnitude in biology resembles the layers of cultural structure: amino acids=archetypes; pairs=pairs; genes=sequence; nucleosomes=optional attributes; histones=variants; chromosomes=media; nuclei=behaviour; cells=people; organs=culture; bodies=societies. Both systems function in ecosystems that re-express archetype.

Living organisms consist of sequences of combinations of four amino-acids (Guanine, Cytosine, Adeninie and Thymine), arranging themselves as pairs of opposites (G v C, and A v T), forming ‘rungs’ on a spiralling ‘ladder’. Sections of this ‘ladder’ form genes, which in turn from larger units in cell nuclei. Some crop circles express sections of biological shapes, including the illusion of perspective, hinting at longer vertical structures, as if their bio-chemical shapes extended from below ground into the sky (somewhat like the dynamic energy beams that Freddy Silva proposed as physical causes of crop circles).

Artworks and building sites express this structure in left- or right-handed versions, sometimes both, in the form of two adjacent and mutually ‘geared’ stoneprints. In nature, some composite atoms occur in left-handed or right-handed forms. Nature prefers left-handed forms, but she allows some ‘mirrored’ forms, for example, oranges versus lemons…. etc see Stoneprint Journal 2.

Barley ear on a coin. Grains have a standard average length and volume, enabling direct trade metrology. Coins standardise indirect or abstract trade.Physical scale of sand grains, corn ears, light beams

Human reflexology reflects natural structure in lymph node links between body organs, irises and palms. Some crop circles express the same structure as human reflexology, by abstract shapes of body ‘chakras’ (wheels, or nodes). These formations are ambiguous with planets (see the solar system scale level above), for the same reason: all media express aspects of archetypal structure. Esoteric crafts attempt to tap into archetypal structure by mimicking natural structures.

Wheat stalks and grains, at the level of ‘digital’ texture in crops, are inextricably bound to weights and measures. A sufficiently large number of barley grains are on average the same length, volume and weight (slight fluctuations over centuries appear to have been uniform worldwide. See references relevant to grains below). Wheat species formed the basis of trade, exchange, and metrics itself, since Sumerian time (Knight and Butler 2010.

Also the Babylonian building projects chapter in Stoneprint, p177 -194). The bushel of the modern era derives from grain. Thus organic compounds standardises metrics and aspects of culture. Crops include sodium (see 11Na in the table above), in compounds, organisms and salt (which was also a standard of exchange. Salt bars were a form of coinage, from which we retain the word ‘salary’). Sodium expresses type 11 Virgo, typical of gestation (see Tarot trump 11, Justice, a woman with scales to account for intangible values such as behaviour). Metrics also used average dimensions of human bodies (ells and feet), and recently fractions of average earth dimensions (metre).

Now, in the global technology era, standards are based on the wavelength of a specific colour of light, and on the electro-magnetic energy in an electron (by measurable changes of resistance in a metal conductor), and on the weight and a certain number of atoms of silica (see 14Si in the table above, typical of clay and rock). Silica expresses type 14 Mixer, typical of time and alchemy (see Tarot trump 14, Time, an angel with an elastic current or silica glass between two jugs).

The proverbial ear of corn, beam of light, and grain of sand, still standardises the world at the scales of nature critical to life. The metric mills may grind even finer yet as we develop tools to measure the minute but multiplied forces in atoms.

Grains standardise length, volume, weight, food and beverage

A grain is one of the earliest standard units to measure length, weight and volume. At  0.065g, or 1/7000 pound avoirdupois, it unifies the apothecary system and troy system. Any substantial number of  dry wheat or other edible grain kernels from the middle of the ears, could be designated as a standard. The Sumerian shekel weight was 180 wheat grains.

The British Troy system included a pennyweight (24 grains), an ounce (20 pennyweights), and a pound (12 ounces). The name may derive from the market city of Troyes in France, or from the former name of London, or from England as a triangular island (as Julius Caesar noted, probably from classical maps).

Three barley-corns end to end, at 2.54 cm, were the basis for the medieval English inch. British silver penny sterling was 32 wheat grains. The Metric grain of 50mg is used to weigh precious stones. The USA Mint adopted the Troy pound for coinage in 1828.

Crop formations express abstract and thus archetypal standards, in the form of shapes and numbers, that invariably include some crystalline, chemical, and biological shapes. Thus the grain fields where the imprints appear are canvases of the sources as well as the products of universal standards, or natural expressions of eternal archetype.

The Greek term derives from ‘arche’ (ancient or eternal) and ‘tupos’ (imprint), conveniently visible in every year’s harvest. Mutation is as much part of nature, and her various art forms (such as feather and skin colours), as it is of culture (such as coinage).

All cultures artificially germinate grains into sprouts, by applying moderate moisture and heat, usually in a heap, cavity or cistern, at about 13 degrees C (55̊ degrees F, or room temperature) for two to three days; then spreading out to germinate; then drying. Malting produces various enzymes, including diastase, which converts starches into sugar. Maltose sugar partially digests or brews grain into baby food, bread or beer, among the hallmarks of civilisation, and integrated with more detailed calendars and more abstract rituals…./// ….etc see Stoneprint Journal2….

Landscape scale of stems on fields

Crop circles are rare ‘natural culture’ events requiring a specific combination of chalk geology, groundwater, earth-sun magnetic, electro-static or microwave energy layers; and crops evenly spaced by man or machine. They depend on accumulation of survey or aerial photographic records and mass printing media to reach our consciousness. Their semi-regular geometry and emblematic format invite conscious interpretation. Their structuralist interpretation became possible only after discovery of natural and cultural structuralist analysis in 2010 (Furter 2014), first applied to crop formation clusters in 2017. Crop circles are not an open book, but the express meanings more calibrated than culture, as eternal as geometry, and as digital as mass technology.

Life occupies many scale levels

Human behaviour, and thus culture, is closely modelled on archetypal structure. The results are best demonstrated in artworks (Furter 2014) and building sites (Furter 2016). Among the expressions of natural structure that bridge nature and culture, are liver map or iris divination, where part of the body is the canvas (Stoneprint p99 -114); geoglyphs where landscape is a cultural canvas (Stoneprint p328 -334); or cosmology, calendar, myth, ritual or crafts such as astrology, alchemy, emblem sets, or kabbalah, where abstract structure in space, time and concepts are the canvas.

Some crop formations express this nature-culture interplay in shapes resembling geometry, plants, species, artworks, emblems, characters, building plans, temples, pyramids and towers. Crop circles offer a rare natural medium with many parallels to cultural media, despite its contamination by fakes. Or perhaps enhanced by inspired fake formations.

Wheat extracts gold from soil

Biological scale includes ecosystems filled with genera and species, each in a ‘periodic’ niche defined by the possibilities of bio-chemistry, climate, and one another. Changes in climate and environment coax an endless range of variations from DNA, as Darwin found by studying organisms such as vegetables, barnacles, finches and fancy pigeons. Humans exploit mutational variety by artificial selection of fruit, grain and stock species.

The oldest records of husbandry are in eastern Turkey, where edible grains survived the Ice Age, and at nearby Gobekli Tepe, where images of at least one sheep and three cattle are among the wild species engraved in relief on T-shaped pillars (see the Ice Age chapter in Stoneprint). Even today, in the era of laboratory patented seeds and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), some uses of flora and fauna, and the bacteria that transform elements such as phosphorus and nitrates into nutrients for plants, are still being discovered and turned into technology (sometimes with dire consequences, such as nitrate toxification, as penalties for working against nature).

The South African Department of Trade and Industry experimented in 2016 with extracting gold from wheat, grown in soil containing gold ore. They seek economic viability in using wheat grain for food, wheat waste for heating, and recovery of residual gold at low grades, below the reach of coarser chemical processes.

Crop circles are known to require specific geological conditions, including chalk, groundwater, and microscopic particles of magnesium, typical of former sea-beds or marine deposits. Crop circle areas, including those in England, France, Italy and the Americas, also contain traces of gold, as does former sea-beds. The unique ability of wheat to absorb gold, adds another metal to the crop circle equation.

Alloy of 81% gold and 19% silicon melts at 363 ˚C. At 600˚C, under the thin layer of gold, a weak spot in the silicon dioxide base allows gold-silicon reaction, spreading (dark gray) until surface tension opens a zone of silicon dioxide, around a small square of gold-silicon alloy. The eventual droplet diameter (black) is about 30 micrometers. The alloy square moves to the centre.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A gold-silicon alloy droplet breaks up to leave a bare circle of silicon oxide (left). The small central square of gold-silicon alloy (middle), is the top of a droplet in the silicon crystal base, where low-energy planes in regrown silicon form a small inverted pyramid (right). A similar process may cause crop circles on a larger scale.

 

 

 

 

One of the variations of theoretical ‘trumpet lightning, drawn by an Oxford chemist in the 1600s, is a square in circle (Prof Robert Plot, LLD; A Natural History of Staffordshire, 1686). Plot was a contemporary of Isaac Newton.

Gold-silica alloy forms micro circles with square pegs

The Molecular Foundry at the USA Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory experimented in 2009 with layers of gold, just nanometers (billionths of a meter) thin, over a silicon oxide base. When heated and cooled on a flat silicon surface, “peculiar features expanded and changed” through various patterns, ending up as a field of circles a few nanometres in diameter, each with a square in the centre. The lab noted that the microscopic structures resembled crop circles (Physical Review Letters,  http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i9/e096102).

When two solids are combined in just the right proportions, changes in chemical bonding may produce an alloy that melts at a temperature far lower than either could melt by itself. Such alloys are ‘eutectic’, or ‘good melting’, after a Greek metallurgy term. An alloy of 81% gold and 19% silicon (AuSi) is used in making nano-scale semi-conductors, such as nano-wires, to connect devices in circuits. It melts at only 363˚ Celsius (while gold melts at 1064°C, and silicon at 1414°C). Gold-silicon alloy can solder chip layers together, or form microscopic wires by flowing into channels in the substrate, without damaging surrounding material, said Berkeley Lab’s Junqiao Wu.

The finding may support theories that crop circles are part of the effects that natural microwave bursts have on crop stem nodes or ‘knuckles’.

Wu said silicon nano-wires could be grown from beads of alloy, by adding tiny droplets of gold. Alloy beads prompt silicon to deposit from a chemical vapor, and ‘ride’ on top while it lengthens into ‘whiskers’.

At micro scale level, the ratio of surface area to volume increases. Nano-scale structures have large surfaces compared to their material mass. Berkeley Lab started with a substrate of silicon (similar to the earth mantle), then a thin barrier of silicon dioxide (similar to earth crust), then a layer of gold (similar to gold traces in crops). Heating the layers for a few minutes cause natural pinholes in the silicon dioxide barrier to enlarge. Alloy forms at the pinholes, replacing part of the gold layer with droplets, which grow and break up into yet smaller droplets, leaving bare flat circles of  silicon dioxide, each with a small square of gold-silicon alloy in the middle (similar to some crop circle formations, see Windmill Hill crop circle type 4. See the 1686 illustration of a ‘sky trumpet’ with a square interior tube above).

The thinner the gold layer, the faster the alloy droplets break up, and the faster the bare circles expand. The diameter of a bare circle is always equal to the length of a side of the alloy square, to the power of 3, divided by two (for example, a square with sides of 4 units, forms in a circle of 4x4x4 =64, /2 =32 units diameter). As they cool, the squares leave small inverted pyramids of gold in the silicon dioxide ‘crust’. One of the factors is silica’s rectangular crystal lattice (see clips at http://youtu.be/c1v_uL9gzBU or http://youtu.be/PfuMkaWvtyk or  http://youtu.be/9gJYfvTyuJY).

Most silicon is oxidized into silica

Pure silicon is rare, but common in oxidized form, as in silica. Silicon’s electron shells are 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2, thus able to remove four electrons to form a +4 charged cation; or to share these electrons to form four covalent bonds. Pure silicon is metalloid, with mineral and metal properties. Silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2) is protected by its outer oxide layer, and thus largely inert. Yet it reacts with fluorine even at ambient temperature, or with concentrated alkalis. Pure silicon is a semiconductor, also used in computers. Silica does not conduct electricity, since it lacks free electrons. Silica’s sulphur and oxygen atoms form a more elaborate crystal structure than silicon’s lattice.

Each sulphur atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms. Silica is abundant in earth crust, and in bones, cartilages, nails, tendons, teeth, skin and blood vessels. It is naturally present in water, carrot, wheat, rice, banana, raisin, and other foods, thus relevant to wheat and to crop circles. When molten and cooled at a certain rate, silica forms glass. This element of transformation is subconsciously expressed in emblematic form in Tarot trump 14, Time, as a flow of either molten glass or electricity between two jugs.

Southern England geology map, indicating that crop circles of 1993 to 1998 closely match arable chalk, greensand and fissure flow aquifer groundwater areas, minus urban areas (after Northcote 2003).
Southern England crop circles of the 1990s closely match groundwater areas (grey. After Silva 2002).
Northcote’s rough distribution map of 100 crop circles of 2002, using Vigay’s list of nearby towns and fields. Northcote noted a correlation with prehistoric mounds, and arable land, but ignored geology, which corresponds much better with crop formation distribution.

Crop circle theories

Several theories attempt to explain the materials and energies involved in crop formations. In the 1600s to 1800s, theories focused on known energies; whirlwind, lightning, meteoritic tektites. Theories became more complex as the data did. The number of formations have increased in recent decades, and so have fakes, hoaxes, pranks, graffiti and advertising logos, in an apparently symbiotic relationship.

Fakes are made near natural circles, often apparently in collusion with nature (see the note on compulsive inspiration by Colin Andrews below, and the comment by the best known crop circle makers, Doug and Dave below), sometimes interfering with natural expression of structure (see the ‘extra’ formations in scenic positions in the structuralist analyses of two field clusters). Crop circles are relevant to the study of nature and culture, and thus to sciences such as psychology, structuralist anthropology, and art history, since they appear in clusters that take some years to complete, just as building sites do.

Geo-chemical formation theories

Soil containing chalk and green-sand (a mixture of sandstone and green earth), hold much groundwater. This combination is the common denominator between sites of frequent formations. Southern England’s aquifer, the deepest in the world, is alkaline from chalk, and piezoelectric, thus building up electrical charge in water under pressure. Crop formations tend to appear over aquifers, ponds, wells, underground tanks and shallow groundwater, but the energy involved may spring from deeper below the surface. In dry summers, as in 1989 and 1990, crop circles appeared closer to the edge of the aquifer, where patches of groundwater were more isolated.

Most of England has a shallow layer of small fossilised sea creatures, each with a tiny speck of magnesium that once enabled them to orient to the earth’s magnetic field. This ‘canvas’ could be energised by groundwater.

Chemical elements in soil and crops include (listed by number of protons):

00 electrons in bonds or free, or in spontaneous manifestation and disappearance (part of Heisenberg’s atomic uncertainty principle);

1H hydrogen 2H2;

5C carbon12, formed in stars by 2He3 resonating in heat;

7C2 carbon14;

7N nitrogen in 78% of air (nitrate levels rise in formation soil, a natural fertiliser requiring high electrical charge to form);

8 O, oxygen, usually O2, or O3 made by ultraviolet from lightning, or in compounds typical of dry soil;

9F fluorine in trace elements causing calcification;

10H2O water;

10Ne neon formed by 11Na sodium, its crystal a cube of touching circles;

11Na sodium in organisms, with 17Cl chorine it forms salt;

12Mg magnesium;

13Al aluminium;

14Si silicon (a semi-conductor metalloid, some as +4 charged cations, some in four covalent bonds, some oxidised);

15P phosphorus;

17Cl chlorine, with 11Na sodium it forms salt;

19K potassium in compounds and organisms;

28NaCl salt, cubic crystals, electrical conductor in solution;

30 SiO2 silica or silicon dioxide, an electrical insulator, with sulphur and oxygen4 in elaborate crystals, reacts with 9F fluorine and alkalis such as chalk);

Au gold, some in AuSi alloy.

Dehydration theories

Dry, hard, powdery or crunchy soil is typical of crop circles, even in irrigated rice paddies, while soil outside formations tend to be moist and sticky. Insects or animals who do not escape in time, are dessicated or mummified during crop formation. A flattened porcupine was reported. Flies have been found flash-burnt and stuck to stalks. A malty smell was noted, perhaps from selectively heated plant nodes. A clump of ‘carbon’ or perhaps fermented plant material was noted in one circle.

Oak leaves facing a crop circle changed to autumn yellow, indicating that the plant sugar had fermented, as milk does after lightning. A jelly-like substance was found in and near two crop circles in 1991. In sound farming, corn exposed to certain frequencies resulted in higher heat in soil, and a slight burnt appearance in plants. Dehydration causes oxygen atoms to deplete, soil composition and radiation to fluctuate. Soil in formations shows variations in alpha radiation, from 27% below average to 198% above.

Innoculation theories

Crop yield in formations could increase up to 40% for several years. Malkowski (2000) noted that microwaves innoculate crops and seeds. He theorised that granite radiators were used in Egypt, Ethiopia and Ireland (in round towers) to amplify and radiate natural and artificial microwaves. Pressure pulses from gravity water pumps below some pyramids may have induced microwave bursts into granite chambers and beams above chambers. Crop yields have a close relationship with light, sound and electro-magnetic frequencies. Crops in formations remain productive. The energy imprint lingers for up to five years.

Crops symptoms

Bending of corp stems at nodes, occurs in a few seconds or minutes. Bends could be in any direction. Often stalks are bent in several layers, each in different directions, with some woven in a pattern. Fake physical bends always occur between nodes. Natural bends are always on stalk nodes, which normally give stems their strength. Nodes also gather moisture, aiding in rigidity. In formations, some nodes are quickly dehydrated by heat, some with holes where steam escaped. Nodes are bent selectively, most often at the lowest knuckle, but sometimes at different heights in different directions in the same formation. Bent crops look dehydrated, and some cell walls are enlarged, as if by internal heating. Wheat stems vibrate. Bells in a church tower at Avebury rang before the ‘DNA’ spiral of 94 circles was formed.

Plant symptoms are more intense, and ‘designs’ more complex, at the height of the growth season.

Bent stalks rise again, two to seven days after formation, depending on maturity, due to photo-tropism, or sun-seeking. Some crops rise in structured patterns, at selective stem nodes. Roots in crop circles re-align to grow stronger on the side opposite the stalk bends, thus the plants assume S-shapes, instead of the usual concentric Y and inverted Y-shapes.

Crop species

Crop circles from mostly in regularly spaced stalks of barley, wheat, canola, rye and linseed, but also in maize, grass, sorghum, rice, Brussels sprouts, potatoes, sugar beet, strawberries, tobacco, sand and snow. Some trees in Wisconsin and Ontario were affected by unknown energy. Formations are selective, for example, leaving poppies standing among bent crop stalks. Younger plants are sometimes unaffected, thus the energy also discriminates by maturity.

Magnetic fields formation theories

Growing grain has a natural positive charge by day, and a natural charge by night. But grain in crop formations seem to have been discharged, or even negatively charged, as if electrons were added from surrounding crops. Electrostatic measurements revealed that crop left standing inside a formation were coated with a charge of about 10 to 100 volts per square inch.

Earth’s magnetic field shifts 3 degrees to 5 degrees in crop circles, noted Colin Andrews. The Hartmann grid forms a regular net of squares over earth, perhaps resulting from a combination of dynamic earth and sun magnetism, gravity, and atmospheric material. Within this grid, geodetic or telluric lines meander, forming concentric or spiral nodes at crossings, of positive or negative polarity, anticlockwise descending or clockwise upwelling. Both are seen in contra-rotating swirls of some crop circle floors. These earth energy nodes also have radials, like clock faces. Numbers 3, 7 and 11 seem important in geo-magnetic nodes. Magnetic vortices cause EM fields in groundwater.

Metal stuck into the soil at the centre of a crop circle, is magnetised. Compasses in crop circles tend to point to the formation centre, instead of to the earth’s magnetic north pole. But the magnetic centre, often marked by a spiral texture, is off-centre to the overall shape of the formation, just as the five polar points are all off-centre to one another (see the star map), and just as their analogous limb joints in artwork designs, or junctures in building site plans are (see the structuralist analyses).

A spinning vortex can generate a magnetic field, especially in saline water that conducts EM energy, and in water in plant stems. Some crop circles have four energy vortices.

Soil samples from the centre of formations, tested by Colin Andrews, yielded up to double the normal electro-magnetic (EM) levels. Military spectrum analysis had detected localised magnetic field disturbances 24 hours before some crop formations. Natural energy fields include electric, magnetic, radio, microwave, ionic, nuclear radiation and moisture signatures, which often disrupt one another. Hovering lights of various colours, notably red or blue, have been reported at formation sites.

Crop formation geometry is slightly irregular

Geometric shapes in crop circles are never exactly regular. Nature favours irregularity regularity. As Leonard Cohen wrote in a song: “There is a crack, a crack in everything, that’s how the light gets in.” Most circles are slightly elliptical, distorted from about 8 inches to about 15 feet, more pronounced on hillsides.

If crop circles are by-products of natural functions, such as the interplay between various levels of energy, matter and time, they incidentally express natural geometry. If the formations are inspiring and beautiful, it is a functional and practical beauty. Artist John Ruskin was mistaken in concluding that “the most beautifully things are the most useless.” Cultural media, such as myth, ritual, art and architecture all express and rehearse some practical functions, including order, some of it camouflaged as decorative flourish. Thus natural and cultural media echo one another in their various purposes and forms, often hidden under their exploration of all the possible varieties of styling.

Animal crop circle symptoms

Animals near potential crop formations are distressed and behave erratically. Birds stop singing. Animals avoid areas where crop circles are about to form, as they also flee from areas about to be struck by lightning. Horses would not cross crop circle perimeters, and become nervous. Sheep and cattle avoid the spot for a year. Dogs become playful or act strangely in crop circles, or mark the energy centres in anxiety by droppings.

Whale and dolphin song themes change over years, much like crop circle themes do. Seen in the context of ecology, crop circle could be a kind of plant-song, a by-product of vegetable life, fulfilling various functions, just as bees, insects, birds, plants, animals and humans all have ideal functions in nature.

Ice Age rock art include about 25 abstract shapes (after Von Petzinger 2016. Graphics after National Geographic. Typological labels by ED Furter). Theses shapes express a set of inherent meanings. Corp imprints express the same range in various combinations.

Corp imprints express the same range in various combinations. Formations may be triggered by disruptions in the natural sun-earth energy field.

Human symptoms in crop circles

Abstract shapes generated by the visual cortex, named entoptics, may result from changes in brain frequencies triggered by dancing, humming, dehydration and social activity. Crop circles seem to be nature’s version of entoptics, in collaboration with human behaviour (including agriculture), just as human entoptics collaborate with abstract aspects of nature, entoptics appear in all art, rock art and artefacts worldwide, including Ice Age cave art). Some researchers in the ‘trance school’ have linked entoptics to migraine headaches (Lewis-Williams 2010).

The onset of symptoms could occur up to 100 feet from the perimeter, and linger after a visit. They resemble radiation sickness: disorientation, vertigo, nausea, headache, dizziness, tingling, various pains. These together indicate Alpha radiation, of electrically charged particles, one of three types of radiation emitted by radioactive substances, but in short bursts, unlikely to damage health.

Ultraviolet (UV) or gamma radiation exposure symptoms were reported by a molecular biologist familiar with it, who visited a Julia Set formation near Stonehenge. He felt lingering nausea, but after some sleep, an intense well-being and mental clarity.

Some people feel compelled to eat seeds from crop circles, feeling sensations of speed, energy, nervousness, flying, electrical interference, deep body vibrations, heat from hands and head and solar plexus, appetite loss and disorientation.

Some feel skull base tension, followed by chest pressure, as of water on lungs. Some prophets, such as Siener van Rensburg, who lived in South Africa near an iron deposit known for electro-magnetic effects, felt skull base pain at the onset of visions, and clasp their hands behind their heads (Raath 2001). Van Rensburg’s visions started with swirling pattern, dissolving into “flowers, cosmos or devils”, then more familiar scenes, often of symbolic shapes: wheels, pits, ladders, doors, animals, people dressed in different colours.

Some people feel only a tickling in the feet, or a ‘sprung floor’ trampoline sensation, and some crunching of dried soil.

Some people feel a sense of deja vu, reminders of something vaguely familiar, in a crop circle. Some studies ascribe this sensation to a small delay in sensory input to the two brain halves, causing a kind of ‘echo’ when the brain halves compare their interpretation of experience twice.

Equipment symptoms in crop circles

Ferrous metals have been magnetised. Tyres have deflated. Electronic devices, mobile phones, cameras and watches have failed. Compasses on airplanes overhead have spun randomly. Credit cards have been wiped clean. Clocks were delayed by several minutes. Time seemed to pass quickly. Shadows cast by some trees could be at odds with others, while the person who noticed this lost half and hour, and regained it when returning to the same spot before or during crop formation. These effects are typical of type 14 Mixer or Time (see Tarot trump 14, Temperance, as an angel holding a flux between two jugs). In the Arthurian romances, two knights riding across a field on a quest remark that “here, time moves backwards”.  Merlin supposedly lived his life backwards. Time may be governed by gravity, and both remain elusive to science, and doubly so to ordinary consciousness.

Sound frequency theories

Sonic cymatics pioneered by Chladni in the 1770s, demonstrated by sand, particles or liquids on metallic disks, that sound imprints geometric patterns on flat surfaces. The human voice is particularly attuned to imprinting a great variety of patterns on the immediate atmosphere, as measured by a tonoscope. Captured voice patterns change from textures to shapes of flowers such as pansy, primrose, geranium, rose, fern, wheat heads, or trees, more complex at higher pitch. The reverse may apply, in that the range of possible distinctive textures and shapes acted as archetypal shapes that allowed and enabled plants, animals and humans to express these shapes.

Hans Jenny (1967) found from photographs that low frequencies tend to form circles, and higher frequencies to form tetrahedra (triangular pyramids, the simplest possible shape with volume of 3D); then mandalas, and the five regular solids. Many of the Jenny photo patterns appear in crop circles, including star fractals. Most human sounds are dynamic in shape. For example, the sacred chant ‘AUM’ forms a circle, that changes into a triangle, then into hexagonal and pyramidal shapes, as in mantra artworks named Sri Yantra in India.

Ultrasound, above our hearing threshold of 20 kHz,can be aimed, focused, reflected. Certain frequencies vibrate certain molecules. The high MHz range, on human mind’s frequencies, affect states of awareness, heals muscular ailments and bone fractures, like sacred sites do.

A four kHz high trilling sound, varying between 3.2 kHz to 5.2 kHz, and a low trilling sound from 0 Hz to 500 Hz, is typical of crop circles. These sounds, like birdsong at about 4 kHz, stimulate plant growth and moisture absorption. A 5.2 kHz trill is used in wheat growth acceleration in Canada by Weinberger and Measures . They also happen to be the two frequency curves that bagpipes make, about 4 kHz from the double-reeded pipe (see the Pictish -Dacian connection in Stoneprint Journal 1), and about 400 Hz from the set of upward drone pipes.

Our brains in wakeful state operates at about 30 Hz.  Resonances of about 7.8 Hz were found at Delphi, Stonehenge, and the Giza pyramids, on the brainwave pattern of mystics and healers. Some crop formations radiate vibrations rising from 7 Hz to 21 Hz (Giovanni and Jean 2008), known as Schumann resonances, associated with 3D, 4D and 5D densities. Octahedral or doubled pyramidal crystals (as of dense carbon in diamonds), are associated with 7 Hz (see microscopic gold-silica alloy in wheat above). Cubes (as of salt crystals) are associated with 21 Hz.

Infrasound, below our hearing threshold of 30Hz, interacts directly with biological processes, if combined with high pressure, could produce permanent changes in substances, including chromosomes, and thus cause health effects or even mutations. A low oscillating hum caused by two out-of-phase frequencies, at 440 Hz and 460 Hz that seems to jump from ear to ear, like Tibetan bowls used in mediation. F# has been noted to prompt brainwaves into greater receptivity.

Low Gregorain chants combined with an EM field (said to be produced in cathedrals), stimulate the brain and body’s magnetic field, and brains generate electrical charges 46 times above average, into psychic activity, allowing access to a collective consciousness. Infrasound could atomise water molecules into mist.

An Etchilhampton farmer saw columns of mist rising like cannon shot on a dry summer afternoon in 1996, where 13 crop circles connected by a winding avenue appeared. At Findon, West Sussex, steam rose like a series of fountains at 6AM from a 1985 crop circle. Infrasonic vapour cavitation creates pressures of up to 500 atmospheres. Lumps of carbon are sometimes found on the soil. Iron powder was found glazed to stems at an Oldbury Hill Fort formation in 1993. Synthesised amorphous iron does not crystalise as it cools, leaving a powder like a soft ferromagnet, leaving stems attractable by a magnet.

Bursts of music in fields in India caused seeds to sprout in a third of the normal time, yields to increase by 61%, and chromosome count in plants to increase. Indian devotional songs increased stomata (surface pores) by 66%, thickened epidermal walls, caused palisade cells to lengthen up to 50%. Seeds during germination under ten minutes of ultrasound (above 20 kHz), or short bursts of light, showed increased growth. Crops were found to bend towards the metallic vibration of sitar music, at an angle of 60 degrees. Sound also affects the evaporation rate of water.

Radio waves and light formation theories

Radio waves range from about 20 kHz (the upper threshold of hearing) to 300 GHz, with wavelengths from 15km to 1mm (after Illingworth). Below visible light lies infrared (300 GHz to 5x 10_5 GHz; wavelengths 0.8micron to 1mm). Visible light ranges from 3x10_5 GHz to 10_6 GHz (wavelengths 300nm to 900nm). Our eyesight, and the energy for photosynthesis in the leaves of plants, is determined by the range that best bypasses earth’s atmospheric filtering.

Microwave formation theories

Just above the broad spectrum of radio waves (wavelength 15km to 1mm), lie microwaves (1mm to 300mm). Microwaves include the average spacing of crop stalks, raising the possibility of sympathetic vibration, with stalks acting as a kind of antenna or canvas for either sending or trapping natural and man-made microwave energy.

Man-made satellites in earth orbit use microwave beams. Heating stems of wheat with a short intense burst of microwave energy can produce wilting similar to that in a crop circle. Flattened stems often have the bend just below stem-nodes, and also may feature blackened burn holes where steam escaped. Microwave heating is capable of producing these effects. The USA Pentagon’s Star Wars program has a satellite capable of delivering such a microwave beam. However, there were no traces of radiation detected in the crop circles. Crops that were bent by microwaves, showed signs of various radiations and moisture differences, but remain productive.

Mega-Hertz formation theories

Frequencies of 150 MHz to 260 MHz range were recorded in the Silbury Koch fractal formation in 1997, rising to 320 MHz at the centre. At Hackpen Hill nine-crescent formation in 1999, 540 MHz up to 650 MHz was recorded. At Golden Ball Hill in 2000, a background of 180 MHz and lotus circle perimeter frequency of 320 MHz was recorded, with a turn by 90 degrees changing the reading to 170 MHz, indicating directional energy. Alkaline batteries died, while lithium batteries continued working.

Giga-Hertz formation theories

At some formations a specific narrow band of signal interference was measured at 1.5 GHz, only 1Hz broad. The interference had a banding effect about every 6 inches (also within the crop stalk spacing range), as if on an agitated pond. This frequency is typical of a hydrogen gas radio wave, which astronomers use as a carrier wave for interstellar transmissions.

LCD displays such as watches darkened, but when rotated by 90 degrees lit up again, perhaps due to polarisation in of liquid silicon crystal. Camera circuit boards have fried.

The strongest local source of almost all energy frequencies is the sun, filtered by earth’s magnetosphere, atmosphere, moisture and plants, which all could act as lenses. Sun and earth rotate, resulting in stretched vortices of energy, with their wave elements compressed on the incoming leading edges, and extended or stretched out on the trailing edges; as well as on the rotational edges (named Doppler shift, or red- and blue-shift). In earth’s moving atmosphere, magnetosphere and crust, some frequencies may be further retarded, and their particle elements and wave elements may be separated, polarised, or phased. The net result are energy vortices with various textured ‘eddies’, of which crop formations may be horizontal snapshots in the microwave frequency range.

Newton solved some physical riddles

Isaac Newton, mathematician, wrote in his notes (Keynes 1965) of a “Riddle of past and future events… a cryptogram set by the Almighty.” Newton had found evidence of a Bible code that he thought was human encryption of history, not realising that the code was implicit in meaning, language and perception, thus natural and archetypal. Newton “looked on the whole universe and all that is in it, as a riddle which could be read by applying pure thought… clues could be found partly in the heavens and in the constitution of elements… he himself wrapt the discovery of calculus in a cryptogram when he wrote to Leibniz.” (Keynes 1947).

If Newton saw cultural codes as natural laws (several of which he had formulated), he may have codified cultural laws as well. Most researchers who came close to discovering the natural code in human behaviour, including Newton, opted for conspiracy theories, such as a supposed “ancient document and brotherhood”. Psychologists such as Jung, and structural anthropologists such as Levi-Strauss, looked instead for inherent patterns in human nature. The discovery of stoneprint in groups of crop circles (see the reconstruction illustrations), now add evidence that the culture code lies within our conscious reach.

If there were revelations “in Babylonia” (or at Gobekli Tepe much earlier around BC 8000), they were lost by the same conscious assumptions that we have to penetrate by number, geometry, deductions and tests, usually prompted by intuition. Newton and others have lifted the camouflage from most natural structures, but human re-expressions remain veiled by our flawed self-image. Structure is the stock in trade of nature, also subconsciously expressed by artists and builders. Yet despite the abundance of ‘code’ in nature and culture, it is our conscious habit to search for inventors and teachers.

Formations in engravings and inspirations

Designs of crop circles were claimed to have been found engraved stones or metal plates buried in the same field, one claimed to have been brought from Mexico. The most notable of these claims is the Grasdorf gold, silver and bronze plates said to have been dug from the symbolic formation field in Germany. More numerous are claims of inspired artworks drawn on the evenings before similar crop formations appeared.

Subconscious human collusion with nature

Colin Andrews (2015) are among the researchers who raised the issue of inspiration versus conscious motivation. “The ratchet design… was manmade, but why? Why did they make that design? And why there? Many unexplained events can surround the making of circles, unknown to the people involved. Sometimes several people are prompted to make formations on the same night, even in the same fields (see my book, On the Edge of Reality). The big question is, What are the implications of human activity, due to non-human [not individual] influence? This is a profound idea… and has huge implications for social structures and beliefs… My first public presentations about these findings were made in 2012, and some of the audience and researchers present ‘got’ it… a non-human [collective] mind influences many humans… The communications are akin to intuitive nudges, subtle, quiet, yet clear and decisive. I would say all-knowing. The ‘chess player’ knows the end game, but makes many seemingly illogical moves… the first people to claim making crop circles said, “It was as if we were being told to make them. We could never quite  understand that feeling” (Doug Bower and Dave Chorley 1991).”

Colin Andrews posted the above on his website in 2015 December 30.

Doug Bower and Dave Chorley said they felt ‘compelled’ to make some crop formations.

Hoaxers, fakers, or agents of nature?

Retirees Doug Bower and Dave Chorley claimed in the early 1990s to have made many crop circles. Mass media and public opinion instantly assumed that the mystery was solved. The topic died in mass media, and was relegated to internet niches. Yet some formations appear in restricted areas, difficult and pointless for pranksters.

Jeremy Northcote (2003) emphasises the cultural context, as if all crop circles were man-made landscape art. He does not even mention geology, and “rules out” natural causes. Northcote wrote: “The area is littered with ancient and modern attempts at what archaeologist Peter Fowler (1995) refers to as “conscious landscape architecture.” The area is well known for the Avebury and Stonehenge monuments, and for burial mounds, long barrows, and of particular relevance to the crop circle phenomenon, its white horse formations carved into hillsides… inspired by the ancient ‘horse’ [or feline] formation at Uffington, just 5km west-south-west of the mean centre of the 2002 crop circles… There is a long history of landscape artistry in Wiltshire that preceded the crop circle phenomenon.” But these statements are all disputable.

Northcote finds it “tempting to see the crop circles of Wiltshire as a continuation of this “sacred art” tradition (Fowler 1995)… Sussex also has a local tradition of landscape artistry, featuring the Wilmington Long Man or Giant, and the white horse at Litlington. The concentration of crop circles… seem to relate to what Baldia (1995) found at megalithic tombs in Europe along pilgrimage routes…  crop circles may be produced in sacred areas to appeal to spiritually oriented visitors.” These views are also disputable. Northcote used only 2002 crop circle location data, for about 100 formations, from one source, Paul Vigay’s Independent Research Centre for Unexplained Phenomena (IRCUP). The data did not include map grid positions, thus Northcote used approximate locations based on the names of the fields or nearest towns, within about 3.5 km on average.

Despite the small sample, Northcote ignores the clear geological and natural energy correlation, and supports a vague modern Druid tourism theory, based on the location of “ancient” structures which may be post-Roman (Furter 2016), and which also followed geology, at least in terms of arable and populated land. Sciences, in their specialised and fragmented disciplines, do not have adequate data, theories, terminology, or even concepts to study the interaction of natural and cultural structures, including artworks, building sites, landscapes, and crop circles. Mindprint and Stoneprint proposed such tools based on an inter-disciplinary approach involving philosophy, alchemy, chemistry, psychology and structural anthropology. Crop circles have acquired a reputation for being outside the bounds of science, and even for being somehow ‘unscientific’. But the splinter, or the beam, is not in nature or in culture, but in the eyes of science.

Avebury Manor ‘solar system’ crop circle, July 2008 (after Lucy Pringle). In the mid background left is Avebury bank, ditch and stone circle. In the far background is Silbury Hill, an artificial mound.

A solar system crop map fluctuates between sun and earth

Orbs, pendulums and planets are one of the apparent themes in crop circles. Every year a dominant theme seems to guide the abstract and semi-figurative shapes; insects, cubes, spirals, cells, birds, symbols, game boards, and more.

The solar system is nearly a flat plane, since most planets orbit relatively close to the earth-sun orbital plane, named the ecliptic. Maximum apparent deviations north and south of our orbital plane are one or two degrees for the large outer planets and Mars; 3 degrees for Venus; 5 degrees for our moon; and 7 degrees for Mercury. The ‘solar system’ crop circle is an apparent orrery, or model of the planets, but condensed, on a logarithmic scale, as we also have to map the solar system for practical reasons. Several commentators have noted that the relative positions of the ‘planets’ seem to reflect the winter solstice of late December 2012 (astrosociety.org, Alice Enevoldsen), when the Mayan calendar clicked over to zero. There was nothing apocalyptic about that date, or that calendar. The Mayan cultural apocalypse had followed the Spanish conquest about 500 years ago.

This crop impression had appeared in two phases, some days apart. In the second imprint, the central flattened area became larger, overtaking the Mercury orbit. The planets appear in their sidereal positions, or real constellation background on the ecliptic of December 2012 (John Walker; Fourmilab); but some planets apparently reflect their celestial positions, thus their angular distance from the spring equinox, or astrological ‘sign’ positions as seen from earth (Astrosociety).

Several contradictions in this map confirm that it is not entirely heliocentric (in sun-centred or ecliptic polar projection). Since the current celestial poles are on the ecliptic meridian between Gemini and Taurus, and between Sagittarius and Scorpius, planets in these four constellations have nearly the same celestial and ecliptic positions (see the star map below). Thus it is nearly impossible to tell by which grid nature expresses planets on and near those constellations. In the imprint (see below), Saturn is in Jupiter’s orbit, perhaps to maintain earth-centred logic. They are nearly opposites, and their axes are close together. The swop may reflect their recent wide separation in celestial declination (north-south); Jupiter was +21 degrees north of the celestial equator, close to the northern tropic, while Saturn was plodding along  -12 degrees south of the celestial equator, near the southern tropic.

Most cosmology models, such as armillary spheres, assume that sun and earth are both at the centre. However solar system maps, or orrerys, have to show these as separate points. Astrological maps or horoscopes place earth at the centre, which may swop some outer planets near the earth-sun axis, as they are on this date map. Stoneprint analysis reveals the axial centre to be off the ‘design’ centre, as usual (the same applies to the mindprint in the irises of our eyes. See Stoneprint p102 -103). Thus several factors are causes or effects of swopping Jupiter’s and Saturn’s orbits.

The celestial north pole is closer to the Jupiter crop dot than the Saturn crop dot, perhaps ‘bumping’ it outward by celestial projection. Orbital tracks in this crop circle are not without logic if they involve ‘jumps’ between ecliptic and celestial projections; or jumps between quarters of the quite eccentric orbits of the outer planets, from aphelion (nearest the sun), to perihelion (furthest from the sun). Due to their distance, their orbits have more influence on their own ‘seasons’, than their obliquity has (obliquity rules our seasons on earth).

The diffuse blob between 3 Aries and 4 Pisces lies between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn (or Saturn and Jupiter). The white mark is probably chalk, ancient seabed underlying the shallow local soil. Minute magnesium (12Mg) particles in this chalk may act as a lens projecting earth energy, in patterns that express digital pictures by selectively bending crop stems at about knee height (Sylva 2002). Microwaves seem to be involved in the formation of crop circles, some of which have been found to inoculate seeds or soil against crop diseases (Malkowski 2010).

Between types 10 Teacher and 11 Womb, far out, are two blobs; probably not planets but stars, since they are scintillating (twinkling, as stars do, and planets do not). These are in the right positions to express the stars Virgo alpha (alpha Virginis in Latin), named Spica, Corn Ear (remarkable since the canvas consists of crops); and Bootes alpha, Arcturus, Bear Tamer, who in myth is a farmer. Bootes in Egypt is a spearman marking Ages (Bauval 2006). His invisible spear point is currently on the hoof of Ursa Minor, which is the small bull foreleg in Egypt (see the Senmut ceiling in the Early Civilisations chapter). These two blobs are thus explained, but there is no notable star at the opposite blob, between 3 Aries and 4 Pisces constellation, and between the Jupiter and Saturn orbits.

However between Aries and Pisces signs always lies a distinctive feature; the moving spring point. The celestial grid moves with the spring equinox, as the first point of Aries sign (not constellation). This point is between Aries sign (now lying over the first 20 degrees of Pisces constellation), and Pisces sign (now lying over the last 30 degrees of Aquarius constellation, see the star map above). Spring currently lies between Pisces and Aquarius constellation, north of the Cetus (Whale) spout and the galactic south pole.

The spring point is often marked in art and buildings. But ecliptic spring is on a tramline, labelled [Gs] in the image. The archetypal spring host, Aries constellation, ends at the Medusa head, cut off by the backward-looking Perseus. Astrology identifies it as the star Algol, held in the hand of Perseus. Stoneprint recognises it as type 2c Basket [labelled Cis for Cista, Basket, in early illustrations]. It marked the start of Age Aries once, at the spring sun that had since precessed backward from the last point of Aries to the last point of Aquarius, or 50 degrees (now at Gs). The blob could mark the first point of Aries constellation, the anchor point from where the celestial first point or spring moved Aries sign backward through Pisces constellation in the last 2000 years. Could the blob express this interplay, and the theme of the start of a new Age?

Astrology takes insufficient account of the interplay between celestial signs (twelve equal slices or concepts of 30 degrees each); and unequally-spaced constellations with their various stars, or ‘Ptolemaic’ astrology. Each planet activates stars in turn by moving through their ecliptic meridians. The blob is opposite the Virgo womb star and Bootes genitals star, that could express the ‘birth’ of Age Aquarius in 2016, eight years after the crop circle. If about 60 other features in this natural map confirm the slow calendar of Ages as part of the ‘meaning’ of a natural ‘picture’, what could we learn here about ‘meaning’ itself? The answer has to involve archetypal structure and its quirks.

Type 14 Mixer or Cancer in this crop circle is inside a tractor tramline loop, forming a bull foreleg shape (typical of Ursa Minor), that the crop circle imprint enhanced by interior concentric lines. Ursa Minor lies far north of Cancer and Gemini, between the ecliptic and celestial north poles. Type 14 Cancer expresses its usual polar ingress or egress, here far from the axial centre. Its polar decan, Ursa Minor, is a bull foreleg shape, from which hoof the celestial pole would soon precess towards 1 Taurus Auriga. In this natural ground plan, near Ursa Minor lies an oval with eleven lugs and one dot, which may express a polar gauge of precession (see semi-oval lines of stone grinders in Gobekli Tepe House C, marking out celestial precession lines). Type 14 Cancer here also resembles a stone axe or mace. Senmut’s ceiling includes such a shape, also in concentric lines, but over adjacent type 15 Gemini (see the Egyptian section).

Stoneprint analysis identifies that axe-shape as 15 Gemini’s usual mace, and as the brightest star in the sky, Gemini Canis star alpha, Sirius or Dog eye. Sirius is a double star with an oval orbit of about 51 years. All cultures mythologise Sirius as calendric (Robert Temple 1976). Here, the potential ratchet gauge lies on the Gemini axis. Near it is a large, slightly eccentric, concentric lug on the nearly blank ‘moon’ circle. This feature could also express Sirius (see Sirius as a concentric circle in Painted Rock, in the Americas chapter in Stoneprint).

Nature and culture do not spell out archetype in conscious terms. Any attempt to impose simplistic conscious logic on natural intelligence would fail. Nature is not talking to us in the personal or conscious sense. We may listen in the synchronistic sense, and try to fathom some of her structural and poetic wisdom, through our plodding conscious minds.

Avebury Manor crop circle, July 2008 (after Galacticconnection.com. Potential planet labels, type or decanal labels, and axial grid by E urter).

The sequence of archetypes in this natural imprint is (with the universal average frequencies of relevant attributes in brackets):

1 Builder or Taurus as Earth? The marker is on the adjacent Mars orbit, perhaps indicating our aphelion or apsis, furthest from the sun, in nearby Gemini (here with a moon or earth orbit diagram near it).

2 Builder or Taurus as Jupiter, in the Saturn orbit (twisting). Their transition or conjunction may lie at the blob between 3 and 4

2c Basket at a minor planet?

3 Queen or Aries as a minor planet?

4 King or Pisces as Uranus, in its ‘house’, in its orbit

5a Priest or Aquarius as Neptune, in its ‘house’, in its orbit, oblique (more typical of Pluto), outermost (large)

5b priest or Aquarius as a minor planet or conjunction? Or crop damage by visitors

6 Exile or Capricornus as Mars, in its orbit, near the centre (ingress/egress). Another Mars at 5, also in a tramline, may be a Mars retrograde marker

7 Child or Sagittarius as Pluto (which may be a moon of Jupiter), in a tramline ‘island’ filled with crops (bag), resembling a lasso or ox goad (rope)

7g Galactic Centre on the tramline island bend. Potential galactic equators are added here (thin white lines), the top one northern, the bottom one southern, as if projected through a transparent star globe. Some artworks trace parts of these equators by limb joints. Some building sites trace part of these equators by roads, paths and streams. Here the galactic equator partly runs along tramlines, which the natural energy field apparently regards as ‘limb joints’ in crop fields.

8 Healer or Scorpius as Sun? with a diminishing spiral tail (bent forward), large (often large). The sun may have been at the centre in an initial crop imprint, then enlarged, as it was in the second imprint when it overtook the Mercury orbit (see 10c Cista Lid). This ‘outer sun’ may express the winter solstice, or sunspots (active in 2012), opposite the moon cycle outside 15 Gemini.

9 Healer or Scorpius as Saturn, in the smaller Jupiter orbit (bent forward, as the ‘aged’ Saturn is in art), large (often large)

9c BasketLid or Lupus at Mercury, in its orbit, a small reversed dot (often a lid shape) in the large flattened crop weave (often a woven texture)

10 Teacher or Libra as Venus, in its orbit. Libra constellation is indistinct, or pictured in adjacent Bootes over Virgo, where Venus was in December 2012.

11 Womb or Virgo also as Venus, her crop dot obliterated by a tramline, or by the expanded Sun of the second crop overprint, thus inside the circle ‘body’ (interior). Virgo contains Bootes, the figure of 10 Libra, since there is not an appropriate gestalt stick figure in its own slice of sky. Venus was in Virgo constellation, south of Bootes, in December 2012. Between 10 and 11, outside the ‘solar system’, are two diffuse grapeshot circles, one on a slight outcrop of white chalk, perhaps expressing Virgo alpha star Spica, ‘Corn Ear’ (a bright white star), and Bootes alpha star Arcturus, Bear-Tamer, herder and farmer.

12 Heart or Leo as ? In the central sun ‘body’ (interior, often a platform in buildings)

13 Heart or Leo as Moon?, on Earth’s orbit, with a concentric core (interior)

14 Mixer or Cancer as a tramline loop, which interior concentrics formed into a bull foreleg shape, typical of Ursa Minor in Egyptian iconography. Its constellation lies far north of Cancer, between the celestial and ecliptic poles (see the Senmut ceiling in the Egyptian section). Here it is far out or ‘south’ of the axial grid (ingress /egress).

15 Maker or Gemini as Asteroids, in their orbit. They are a string (rope), a former planet destroyed by a comet impact (smiting, mace). Also as an orbit diagram, eleven lugs and a dot on a bag shape (bag)

15g Gate at Canis alpha star Sirius, a large grapeshot circle.

The ecliptic pole or axial centre is unmarked, and away from the design centre as usual. The celestial poles may be on the Earth-Sun axis, placing summer in Taurus 1 and winter in Scorpius 8, as they are since 2016, when the spring equinox entered Aquarius (see the star map above). The conscious layer in this solar system diagram, is partly conscious to us, but ‘subconscious’ to nature. Most of the implications of the diagrammatic picture or map, take patient study to reveal. Ironically, some apparently simple dots on concentric circles, with a few embellishments and textural differences, reveal more archetypal features than most elaborate crop circles do.

Cosmology has natural and cultural structure

Cosmology is inevitably a combination of properties of nature, and of our innate perception. The best canvas for cosmology is a sphere, such as the sky, containing three equators and three sets of polar axles…. etc. See Stoneprint Journal2….

Milk Hill letters, 1991 08 02 (after Andrew King). They could be read as two Latin words in Masonic script: (o)||OPPONO||ASTOS||(o), I oppose deceptions (Hawkins 1993); or Oppono Artor, I oppose acts of artifice. The motto may imply that natural structure could not be faked, and that even concepts and words are creations of nature.

Nature spelled out a motto on crop tram lines

American tourist Erik Beckfjord had trampled out crude letters in wheat on the side of a hill, ‘Talk to us’, also implying a challenge; Who are you? Some days later, an apparent answer appeared nearby at Milk Hill, in what may be Latin letters. Prof Gerald Hawkins, author of a book on Stonehenge, assembled a team of twelve scholars to decipher the apparent answer. It could be two words in post-Augustan Latin, in celestial Masonic script, 55 meters long and 5.5 metres wide. The last letters, -OS, is an accusative plural, thus AST-OS means Acts of craft and cunning (plural of astus).

Nature, in her infinite capacity, seemed to say, ‘I differ from fakes’. Disinformation, conscious assumptions and loose media consensus at the time had discredited crop circles as hoaxes, leading to general public scepticism, and to more actual hoaxes. However hoaxers snap crop stems, and cannot bend crops at the stem nodes, nor leave them growing as natural crop circles do (Silva 2002). Crop formations have long appeared throughout southern England and elsewhere in the world, some in intricate designs.

In Greek it speaks against corruption, for civil rights

If read as Greek, ‘astos’ means tamed, broken, conquered or bribed, as if by a foreign empire. In the context of genetically modified crops, the reading of ‘tamed’ also invokes the theme of language, perhaps warning of ‘mistranslation’ of DNA and natural structures in conscious use of language. A related Greek word means the civil rights immigrants, apparently relevant to the invasion of Europe by Syrian refugees.

A Hebrew -Basque -Babylonian interpretation invokes towers

If read as Hebrew, right to left, the letters could spell Basque words for an Egyptian god and a Babylonian god; ‘Phehthi, Ptah, Creator; and Ea-cheche, Ea-Enki, Wisdom (Michael Green 2001). These gods or principles express type 15 Gemini, physical creation, and the adjacent structural point of type 15g, Galactic Gate. This gate lies at the crossing of the ecliptic and galactic equators, flanked by type 1 Orion, guardian of weather, lightning and towers, and his higher decan 1:16 Auriga (see Tarot trump 16, Tower struck by lightning). Types 1 is also expressed as Thoth (see Tarot trump 1, Juggler). An /Enki is one of the three cosmic equators (see Ur-Nanshe in the Early Civilisations chapter), two of which cross in the 15g Gate. Towers and languages are linked in the Babel myth (see a discussion of the Maikop silver bowl in Stoneprint).

Mirrored code for ‘hidden’, type 2c Basket of Mysteries

If read as a supposed Essene anti-Roman code, in mirrored letters (like Da Vinci used in his notebooks), if for examples L and N are interchanged, the shapes resemble UCCULUI NUNC, or OCCULUI NUNC, perhaps readable in Latin as ‘I have hidden now’ (Simon Burton 1995). This interpretation invokes type 2c Cista Mystica, and its opposite type 9c Basket Lid, which in artworks and buildings express concealment and potential discovery. The adjacent type 2 decan Perseus, which holds the star Algol, or Medusa Head, in a cloth bag or basket, has one foot on the Pleiades. Diviners reading livers stand with one foot on a rock, as the Etruscan diviner, Chalchas, is shown in art.

Diviners establish a connection to earth, while sprouting wings of prophecy to transact between heaven and earth via natural structure reflected in a liver (see the Piacenza liver divination model double concentric sequence imprint in Stoneprint). In Nicolas Poussin’s painting, Shepherds of Arcadia (which also expresses a stoneprint as usual, see Mindprint p144-145), one of the shepherds stand on a rock, as the group read an inscription; Et in Arcadia Ego (Also in Arcadia I am). In the context of death art (ars moriendi), the tomb implies that Death is in paradise and in heaven, and that even gods die and resurrect.

Baigent, Leigh and Lincoln (1983) decoded the Arcadia motto as Tego Arcana Dei; ‘Begone, I conceal God’s secrets’. This may imply that God’s will is not easy to divine or to read, or may not have literal meaning. If a short motto on a rural tomb expresses divine secrets, it requires only practical experience to understand. As the Gospel says, children could enter the kingdom. The woman behind the shepherd places her hand between his shoulders, over his heart. She may be Sophia, Wisdom. Thus the enigmatic tomb in the famous painting includes a universal heart and womb, ‘also in Arcadia’; and all people have access to contentment, wisdom and innate knowledge.

The apparent Arcadian warning to ‘begone’, and the crop circle’s vague threat of ‘I oppose’, could indicate that their meanings lie in ‘Arcadia’, outside conscious logic, in the realm of archetype. Conscious assumptions and learned cunning must ‘begone’ if we want to read the book of nature.

Among nature’s infinite pages of wisdom, are species, materials, events, all expressing archetype; and pictures that present archetype in abstract form. The format of shapes, geometry and figure abstracts, is familiar to culture as ‘sacred’ geometry, art, emblems and seals, which alchemists use to reveal the secrets of nature and culture. Perhaps crop circles are among the many reminders that some aspects of nature remain hidden to our limited consciousness, and that we glimpse these larger meanings by our subconscious, in dreams, visions and inspiration. Thus crop circles may be seen as natural dreams, requiring crafts such as divination, astrology, ritual and alchemy to raise some of its content to our conscious minds and our limited faculty of language.

Typical of heresy and debunking

If read in the context of response to the challenge (‘Talk to us’), and of fakes, theories and ‘debunking’, the words Oppono Astos, I oppose (or mirror) artifice, creation, images; or perhaps Oppono Artor, I oppose artifice or falsehood; recall the eternal academic tradition of anti-heretical treatises. Bishop Irenaeus of Leon (Lugdunum), France, in AD 180, published ‘Detection and Overthrow of False Knowledge’, a title now commonly abbreviated as ‘Against Heresy’. There was more Gnostic and esoteric writing to debunk at the time, than in our more sanitised, standardised, ‘educated and rational’culture.

Some church fathers had attacked the Gospel of Judas, apparently on hearsay. The work was long lost, but recovered and published by national Geographic in recent years. Thus some crop circles evoke well-known meanings and attitudes, often directly relevant to the problem that crop circles pose to culture and knowledge, or to crafts and sciences. As in most mottos, the supposed truth is in the eyes and mind of the beholder. Theosophy, for example, a scientific approach to esoteric, has the motto ‘There is no religion higher than the truth’. What is artifice, and who are the artificers? Thus crop circles function as the classical oracles did in spreading riddles that exercised and educated the public mind.

Crop graffiti against Anthony

If read as Oppono Anton, the words mean ‘I oppose Anthony’, who had many opponents against his war for Cleopatra’s sake.

In Greece, votes were cast by taking two round kylix wine cup bases, or ostraca, each inscribed with a different name or response, and voters dropped one into a ballot vase, and one in a discard vase. The kylix bases were concave, black, and holed in the centre, resembling the three (0) sigils starting and dividing the two words in the crop formation. The ostraca were strung together and and counted, and the losing person was ‘ostracised’. Voting as often rigged by placing prepared kylix bases in the ballot vase, again invoking astos as ‘acts of cunning’.

Religious ostracising or ec-communciation implies banning from the kingdom of heaven, noted in the Bible (Jer34;6 Jos10;3,10 2Chr11;5,9 2Chr32;9). The circles may also spell out alpha and omega, first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. Again potsherds are involved, joined by skulls or gehninnom, implying a curse for being of ‘empty head’, a fool, raca, in the acheldama or field of blood, potters field outside Jerusalem, of foreigners. Tarot trump 13 pictures this allegorical field of potsherds, skulls and bones, under the hoofs of the horse of Death with a scythe (type 13 Leo, of death, weapons, war, bastions, water works and hearts).

The themes in the various readings of this crop circle seem to express type 13c Basket Head, between types 14 Cancer and 13 Leo, at the archetypal position of the north celestial pole, between decans Ursa as a horse or bear, and Ursa Minor as a fox or bird. Type 13c is one of the four half-types, and requires more study. Since secrets, revelation and texture are involved in 2c and 9c, the themes of ballots, ostracising, peer pressure, vote-rigging, prison, and keys to the kingdom may apply to 13c.

Crop bunk versus debunk

If viewed with the tramlines on top, and read as the bottom halves of modern capital letters, the formation could spell MEADON TALKS SHIT, referring to polemics between rival crop circle fakers. Hawkins and the academics found Oppono Astos to be post-Augustan Latin, but perhaps also referencing the month of August, in which the formation appeared. If it were a hoax, said the Hawkins team, they would like to quiz the claimed formation makers on historic changes in Latin grammar and some other issues.

If the three (0) sigils are read as Alpha, Present, and Omega, the formation could spell ‘Alpha Opposes Present Artificial Omega’, or ‘Original Opposes Currently Crafty End’. The punctuating circles could also picture scroll ends.

If the words are read as Ommo No Artor, Man is Not Creator, the formation’s motto also indicates that nature is supreme, or that nature opposes genetic modification (GM) of crops, or of stem cells, or of any DNA, by artificial means.

If the words are read as Oppono Arthor, I oppose Artur, the Bear, they could imply the constellation Draco, Dragon, who holds the celestial north pole in on its bent back; or Bootes, who in Egyptian myth and decans control Ursa and thus the celestial north pole (Bauval 2006). Or if king Arthur is implies, some post-Roman Dark Age politics linger among the UK’s Pictish and Norse graves, that modern fancy ascribe to supposed ‘druids’.

Crop genetic labelling?

If read in the context of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entering agriculture about the 1990s, the motto of ‘I oppose artifice’ could be a slogan against genetic engineering. Increased crop circles could even be a kind of DNA self-labelling function, as nature adjusts to enforced new varieties. Culture mimics this effect by labelling codes and regulations.

Windmill Hill crop circle time cluster collage reconstruction (after Borziani 2014, on Getmapping. Type numbers with decanal labels, and axial grid by E Furter). Borziani had artificially colour-coded the cut and pasted formation images, after chakras (wheels) reflexology theory. The new analysis demonstrates a more consistent, detailed, layered structure.

Windmill Hill crop circles, a canvas of controversy

Windmill Hill fields are just north-west of Avebury (see the cultural landscape map above). The hill itself has several Late Stone, Bronze and Iron Age barrows and walls. It is the largest known  causeway camp in Britain, provisionally dated BC 3700. One of the four Bronze Age round barrows may have borne a windmill. One may have been opened by William Stukeley in the early 1700s, to reveal a collared urn upside down over a cremation (Pastscape). Excavations before 1849 revealed seven skeletons, perhaps Saxon re-use, and a grape cup, and a stone battle axe. Mound2, named Picket Barrow, was excavated in 1935 after a rabbit exposed a cremation urn, and three stone axes, a bronze dolphin brooch of Roman date (perhaps Pictish, see the White horse notes below Milk Hill), Roman potsherds, and a perforated sarsen stone mace-head.

The field is at latitude n51 26’ 14.68” and longitude w1 52’ 35.35”, on the ‘Michael and Mary’ male and female ley-lines. The female initiation procession starting point could be a mile west, at a burial site with many tumuli, in former woodland. The male initiation procession starting point could be at the Sanctuary, a mile east of here, just beyond the artificial Silbury hill.

The sequence of archetypes in Windmill Hill crop circles in recent years is:

1 &2 Builder; Two entwined ‘snakes’, S-shaped (twisted posture), 2009 05 25, in barley. Both have opposites at 8&9 wormholes, thus they express ‘worms’.

2c Basket; Thunderbolt, 2012 10 14, fake? In a small wildlife conservation patch of mixed crops for bird seed and ground nesting (woven texture). The farmer had politely asked people to avoid this field. It is right below Windmill hill (the natural type 2c of the site) and its ‘fort’ structures, and due north of the invisible centre (as one of the cista axes often is). See also the ‘extras’ between 14 and 15.

3 Queen; (blank, or expressed after 2013?).

4 King; Square (rectangular) of Koch series fractals, 1999 07 16. Three of the four Pisces cardinals in this field (see 7, and 15), express rectangles.

4p Galactic S. Pole; Edge (limb joint) of type 5:20.

5a Priest; Hexagonal flower, 2010 07 26. Comet Ison? Mayan date 0.0.0, or two sets of 13 circles for 13.0.0.0.0, or outer two sets of 14 or 18 circles for 12.19.18.14.18, or 2011 10 28, a Mayan Tzolkin end date. The central large thin circle could express comet Ison near the sun on 2013 11 28. Mercury and Venus positions confirm that date, as the researcher Drew noted.

5b Priest; Two pairs of snakes biting tails, the inner heads offset by 90 degrees, 2011 07 26? 2012 10 14? A median ring holds two planets, the larger one ringed; Saturn and Uranus, or Jupiter and Mars on Mayan date outward 13.0.2.14.18, or 2015 10 5 /7?

6 Exile; Three-legged spiral, triskelon, 1996 07 29.

7 Child; Square cross cloudburst (manifestation), 2003 07 26? Formed in rain, in a natural dew pond depression, in barley. Some stalk breakage, mud, messy smaller circles, path lines between inner and outer features, widths inconsistent (Fussel and Dike).

8 &9 Healer; Two wormholes, 2006. Opposite 1 &2 ‘worms’.

9c BasketLid; Horslip long barrow, stones mostly removed to Horslip (Oslip stream) bridge, and to Swan Collage garden walls in Bray Street. Unploughed rectangle with 50m side ditches, chalk blocks revetments. Mound of chalk, humus  and ox bones, including two antler spades, topped by sandstone slabs from the Mendips. Excavated 1959.

10 Teacher; Head of a small chakras body, in crescent (arms up), as a staff (staff), 2012 07 25.

10 Teacher B; Head of a large chakras body, in crescent (arms up), as a staff (staff), 2004 or 2014?

11 Womb; Central circle (womb) of a large chakras body, 2004 or 2014?

11p Galactic Pole; Edge (limb joint) of an S-shaped with two yin-yang S-shapes.

12 Heart; Centre (heart) of the inner of two linked double spirals (concentric), 2011 07 13. A pair of single spirals were formed at Chaddenwick hill on the same day.

13 Heart; Edge of two small concentrics (interior) overlapping, far from the cluster centre (egress is more typical of 14). There may be a small spacing error in the collage reconstruction here, or opposite at at 5b, to show part of the underlying type 6.

14 Mixer; Triangle or tetrahedron (Y-shaped), small (small), near the centre (ingress/egress).

ExtraA; Pentagon thorns in ring thorus, fake? 2003.

ExtraB; All five formations off the axial grid (four between types 14 and 15, and one at 3c), are in irregular positions in the archetypal sequence.

ExtraC; The ‘extras’ lie just south of the hill, perhaps planned as a photo backdrop.

ExtraD;  Hexagon loops or ball in a net, infilled in phases, 2002 07 18.

15 Maker; Clown face, 2009 08 06. Four dumbbells (maces or sceptres) as four years? Near the centre was a small clump of four crop knobs, perhaps four of the five poles of this formation’s own stoneprint (see inset). Outer orbit of eight planets and comet Ison on 2013 11 28? Drew compared the inner orbits of a meteorite or comet Ison, earth-moon, Venus, Mars and Mercury.

The axial centre or ‘Ecliptic Pole’ is unmarked, as usual. The Celestial Pole is on type 14’s edge (limb joint), east of the axial centre, placing ‘summer’ in Leo-Cancer, thus ‘spring’ and the cultural time-frame in Age Taurus-Aries, confirmed by celestial north, and the hill with its ancient features. An Age Taurus time-frame is typical of alchemical works of all ages. An Age Aries time-frame is typical of most artworks and building sites of Age Pisces (of the last 2000 years). All works usually express the time-frame of the previous Age. The transitional frame thus may express our current transition, two archetypal Ages ahead of the cosmic frame of nature, and of most cultures. The time-frame of natural artworks is likely to change to Pisces or Pisces-Aquarius after 2016.

Avebury and Silbury cultural cluster

The sequence of archetypes in the Avebury and Silbury landscaps is…. ect…. See Stoneprint Journal 2.

Crop circles have natural and cultural histories

1678: ‘No mortal man’ could have made crop circles

A woodcut broadside pamphlet of 1678 reported on the Hertfordshire Mowing Devil, with an illustration of a creature with a scythe. The text describes plants that have been flattened, not cut. Under the heading, Strange news out of Hartfordshire, the tale unfolds. “A typical farmer bargained with a poor mower about cutting down three half acres of oats. But the mower asked too much. The farmer swore that the devil should mow it rather. So that night the crop of oats showed as if it were all aflame, but next morning appeared neatly mowed by the devil or some infernal spirit, that no mortal man could do this in one night. The oats lie now in the field, and the owner is in fear, and has no power to fetch it.”

1686: Prof Plot, father of crop circle research

Prof Robert Plot, LLD, was the first crop circle investigator. In his book, Natural History of Staffordshire, the Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, and Prof of Chemistry at the University of Oxford, reports digging into soil under 50 crop circles. He noted that animals tended to stay away from crop figures. He also cited several by then already historical reports. Plot hypothesized that crop circles were formed by hollow thunderbolts, or deer, or mosses. His most practical note was that crop yields in former circles, increased by up to 30% for several years. Many of his findings were confirmed in the 1900s. Plot’s record was revived in the 1980s. Plot was also one of the first palaeontologists. He had published evidence of the first fossil bone, now known as part of a dinosaur, in 1676. Formations were already well known in the fields of Staffordshire. Some grass formations are now supposed to be caused by a fungus, perhaps after weakening of nodes by another cause.

1880: No firm conclusions on fairy rings

Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1880) noted that Matthew Hopkins of Manningtree, Essex, was witch-finder in the counties of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk and Huntingdonshire. He had hanged sixty reputed witches in one year in Essex alone. Dr Z Grey noted that about 3500 people suffered death for witchcraft between 1643 and 1661. The dictionary noted that no firm conclusions were reached regarding a cause or meaning of fairy rings.

1790: Hints of natural causes of crop circles

A series of letters by several authors in Gentleman’s Magazine (1790 -1793), under the heading ‘“Hints towards natural history of fairy rings, include many descriptions of crop circles and geometric formations, with some diagrams. The articles apparently confuse crop circles in grass or grain, and fungus rings, yet there may be a natural link. One letter notes a paper published by the Royal Society that attributes fairy rings to lightning.

1880: A spectrosopy view of crop circles

A letter on crop circles in Surrey by early photographer and spectroscopist John Rand Capron, titled Storm effects, was published in the journal Nature (vol 22, p290-291, 29 July 1880). Capron wrote: “The storms about this part of Surrey have been lately local and violent, and the effects produced in some instances curious. At a neighbour’s farm, we found a field of standing wheat considerably knocked about, in patches forming circular spots… all with a few standing stalks as a centre, some prostrate stalks with their heads arranged pretty evenly along a direction, forming a circle around the centre, and outside these a circular wall of stalks which had not suffered. I send a sketch made on the spot… The soil is a sandy loam on green-sand. The crop is vigorous, with strong stems. I could not trace locally any circumstances accounting for the peculiar forms of the patches in the field, nor indicating whether it was wind or rain, or both. They were to me suggestive of some cyclonic wind action, and may perhaps have been noticed elsewhere by some of your readers.” Capron was an early scientific photographer, solicitor, and coroner. He had a private observatory at Hog Back ridge, West of Guildford, near these corp circles.

1805: Swirled wheat in Ohio

In ‘The Sherrard Family of Steubenville (1880s, p53-54), Robert Andrew Sherrard and Thomas Johnson Sherrard note that in 1805, there was a rattlesnake incident while harvesting a wheat field three miles from Smithfield, Jefferson County, Ohio. He notes in passing a circle of flattened, swirled wheat, now named an RDF-type crop circle. “The wheat in this field was blue stem, the first of the sort I had seen. As the ground was newly cleared, this new crop lay twisted and swirled in all directions, which made it hard to reap.”

1932: The first crop circle photograph

Archaeologist Eliot Cecil Curwen published the first crop circle photograph with a short piece in Sussex Notes and Queries, published by the local Archaeological Society. Curwen was a surgeon and ‘gentleman scientist’ who wrote two books and many articles on Sussex. He noted that in August 1932 he was taken to see a group of circles in a field of barley below Bow Hill, visible from Neolithic barrows on the grassy summit. He was interested in crop marks revealing more possible archaeological remains below. He took a photograph, sketched their approximate size and positions in the field, but found no subsoil factors when he dug in the circles. The crop was bent, beaten down, or ‘lodged’ in regular patterns. The largest circle was about 40m diameter. One of the circles overlapped a path and fence, and the intersection appears to have prevented the circle from continuing in the adjoining field.

1963: A crater and oval crop circles

The famous astronomer Sir Patrick Moore wrote a letter to New Scientist (1963 07 15) about crop formations at Manor Farm, Charlton, Donhead Wiltshire, near Shaftsbury, Dorset. He found a round crater and flattened corp circles, perhaps due to a meteorite impact, in a field of potatoes and barley. These were also reported in three articles in The Times. The crater was 8ft wide. A cow nearby had its hide peeling, as if scorched. Moore noted several circles of flattened wheat nearby, circular or elliptical. “One circle, very well defined, was an oval fifteen yards long and four and three quarter yards broad… with spiral flattening, and… a circular area in the centre in which the wheat had not been flattened.”

1960s, 1990s: More crop formations in mechanised fields

In the 1960s, crop circle numbers increased, perhaps partly due to mechanised ploughing and planting. In 1991, hoaxers make some changes and additions to some crop circles. In the 1990s there was a dramatic upturn in crop circle numbers, perhaps partly  due to more precise mechanised planting, or to fertiliser. Lines become more prominent among curves.

Crop circles remain one of the major challenges to both natural and human sciences, or ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ sciences. Their eventual mutual resolution may change some of our conscious assumptions. Such changes are as rare, as gradual, as rationalised, and as undocumented in science as they are in popular culture.

= This post is an extract from Stoneprint Journal 2; Crop circles are natural artworks. A supplement to the book Stoneprint (2016). Lulu.com

SOURCES AND REFERENCES

Allen, RH. 1899 Star names and their meanings. Lost Library, Glastonbury

Anderson, PS; Canadian Crop Circle Research Network (CCCRN), website

Bauval, R. 2006 Egypt code. Century

Borziani, F. 2014. http://www.cropcirclestories.com/index.php/component/wisrogis/?view=map&id=19&lat=51.36200000&lon=-1.85100094444&zoom=14&formation=uk%20_%202003-08-04%20_%2030%20adamsgrave&country=uk&Itemid=278 [click all the years in the list to see the recent crop circles restored in the collage]. Or http://www.thecropcircles.eu/crop_geometries.htm or fabio@uniquefragments.com

California Center For Crop Circle Studies, magazine [defunct]

Collins, A, and Cotterell, M. 1995. Mayan prophecies. Element, Shaftesbury

Crop circle connector, www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/time2007m.html

Crop Cirle Secrets, www.cropcirclesecrets.org

De Santillana G, Von Deschend H. 1969. Hamlet’s Mill: An essay on myth and the frame of time. Boston: Gambit

Del Campo, J. Crop Circles: Messages, Art or ‘Something Completely Different?’

Dodwell, GF. 2010. Obliquity of the ecliptic; Ancient, mediaeval, and modern observations; in Setterfield, http://www.setterfield.org/Dodwell_manuscript_1.html

Furter, E. 2014. Mindprint, the subconscious art code. Lulu.com, USA

Furter, E. 2015 A. Art and Rock art express the structure of culture. On Graham Hancock, Author of the Month, Sept. https://grahamhancock.com/furtere1/

Furter, E. 2015 B. Art is magic. Expression 10, Dec. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2015 C. Gobekli Tepe, between rock art and art. Expression 9. Atelier Etno, Italy. Also in: Rock art Where, When, to Whom. Ed. E Anati 2016

Furter, E. 2015 D. Mindprint in mushroom /psiclocybin, peyote /mescalin, sugar, and chocolate art. On www.mindprintart.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2016 A. Colonial artists re-style the same characters. Expression 14. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2016. Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities. Four Equators Media, Johannesburg, South Africa. Extracts on www.stoneprint.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2017 A. Pregnant is the most consistent typological gender. Expression 15, March. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2017 B. Recurrent characters in rock art reveal objective meaning. Expression 16, June. Atelier Etno, Italy

Fussel, M, and Dike, S; Crop circle wisdom, website; http://cropcirclewisdom.com/crop-circle-diaries/

Gigal, A. 2016. Megalithomania lecture on Giza island; http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/2016/05/megalithomania-antoine-gigal-the-divine-island-of-giza-3355165.html

Glickman. M, http://www.michaelglickmanoncropcircles.com/blog/the-first-five-crop-circles-of-2017/

Gombrich, EH. 1979. 1984 Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art. Cornell Univ. Press

Gospel of Thomas, Gnostic MS

Hamilton, Bill. Skywatcher. skywatcher22@hotmail.com

Hussey, B. www.paradigmshift.com/theories.html

Jung, CG. 1934, 1954. Archetypes of the collective unconscious. CW

Jung, CG. 1964. Man and his symbols. Dell

Knight, C, and Butler, A. 2010. Civilisation One. Watkins

Leach, E. 1970. Claude Levi-Strauss. University of Chicago Press

Levinson, WC. Increased fertility of seeds from crop formations. BLT Reports

Martineau, J. Crop Circle Geometry (out of print)

Mason, J; Greatdreamns website, JMason4557@aol.com

Neugebauer, Otto; and R Parker. 1969 Egyptian astronomical texts 3; Decans, planets, constellations and zodiacs. Brown Univ

Northcote, J. 2003 Spatial distribution of England’s crop circles: Using GIS to investigate a geo-spatial mystery. Edith Cowan University, Australia

Paris, M. Historial Anglorum

Plot, Robert, Prof. 1686 A natural History of Staffordshire [including crop circles]

Popper, Karl. 1963. Conjectures and Refutations. London. Routledge

Pringle, Lucy; what on earth, http://www.cropcirclemovie.com/greatdeal

Seurig M, and W Baumann. Prehistoric Mathematics & British Crop Circles

Silva, F. 2002 Secrets in the fields. Hampton Road Publishing, hrpc@hrpub.com

Talbott, Nancy; Plant abnormalities indicate plasma discharge in 2009 UK crop cirles. BLT Research Team Inc; BLT Reports

Temple, R. 2003 Netherworld. Random House

Thomas, A, and M Leigh; Vital signs: a complete guide to crop circle mystery and why it is not a hoax (website)

Thomas, Andy; website, www.truthagenda.org

Tyler, S et al. 2009 Large reaction rate enhancement in formation of ultra-thin gold-silicon eutectic layers. With Matthews, Carolyn Sawyer, D Frank Ogletree, Zuzanna Liliental-Weber, DC Chrzan, and Junqiao Wu. In Physical Review Letters, http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i9/e096102

Vigay, P; www.cropcircleresearch.com/articles/alienface.html

William of Newburgh, 1290, Chronicle

Wylie, Alison. 1989. Archaeological cables and tacking: the implications of practice for Bernstein’s options, beyond objectivism and relativism. Phil of Social Sciences 19, n1, March

Zipf, GK. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Addison-Wesley

Categories
Archetypes in Ice Age art and building sites

Gobekli Tepe art is archetype, not a zodiac

A vulture and scorpion among the animals carved on Gobekli Tepe pillar D43, attracted several interpretations as a ‘zodiac’. However no coherent star map, observational record, or zodiac sequence emerged. Five different identifications extensively contradict one another. The artwork is not consistent with the interpretations of Stephany (who offers two different options), Burley (supported by Hancock), Collins, or Sweatman and Tsikritsis. Yet there is some consensus that four species on other Gobekli pillars could be seasonal ‘beasts’ or cardinal constellations. As in artworks worldwide, the design on pillar D43 subconsciously expresses the five layers of archetypal structure, that we also imprint in myth, ritual, emblems, building sites, calendars, various sets of 16, 18, 24 or 36 hour decan asterisms (see the Babylonian example below), and constellations.

Characters expressing archetypes always have an axial grid between their eyes, as demonstrated below. Various zodiacs worldwide express some elements of time, symbol, ritual and myth, but cultural media expresses archetypal structure; they do not illustrate the sky. Babylo-Assyrian boundary stones, and the Mul Apin (Starry Plough) list, demonstrate that icons are apparently varied, yet structurally rigorous. Culture is compulsively sustained by the structure embedded in nature, in our perception, and in our subconscious behaviour; not by ‘tradition’.

Iconography offers some conscious access to the structure of perception and expression. No single artwork or cultural set contains all the variants. And no single science could interpret cultural behaviour. Inter-disciplinary study is required to study our subconscious connection to nature, including time and space. Simplistic correspondence theories are inadequate to the role that archaeo astronomy should play in the human sciences.

By Edmond Furter, Author of Mindprint, and of Stoneprint

Comments to any article are welcome in the Comment function below.

Figure 1 A and B. Gobekli pillar D43 with two different astronomical interpretations by Stephany.

STEHANY SEES THE VULTURE AS PEGASUS, OR SAGITTARIUS

Timothy Stephany (2009) was among the first astronomical interpreters of Gobekli Tepe art. On pillar D43 he initially saw (clockwise from top left): bird hut as Perseus; furrowing fox as Cassiopeia; its hut as Cepheus; spider’s hut as Draco head; spider as Hercules; heron as Cygnus; reed wall as galaxy; bird forepart as Lyra; rearing chick as Aquila; scorpion as Aquarius north and Capricornus tail; big bird as Piscis Austrinus; wolf as Aquarius south; snake as Pisces; dot as Lacerta; vulture as Pegasus. He did not picture the celestial equator of about BC 9500, which lay across Pegasus north; nor the three poles, which were aligned at the time. In another proposal, Stephany uses the other half of the galactic equator, and sees the bird, fox, spider and three birds as small asterisms in the galaxy, over vulture as Sagittarius, scorpion as Scorpius, and the rest in the Ara and Pavo area.

On other pillars, Stephany sees a pig as Ursa; a cup-hole above its eye as the then distantly future celestial pole at Polaris (where it is now, 11 000 years later), and ‘misplaced’ to Camelopardalis. But the Giraffe is 20 degrees south of Ursa Minor. And in Gobekli times the pole was at Ursa’s tail.

On pillar A2 he sees the cow as a macro asterism north of Virgo, Libra and Scorpius, its horns in Virgo at the star Spica, its back in Bootes, body in Corona and Hercules, feet in Ophiuchus. The fox he sees as Scorpius Claws, its body over the Ophiuchus feet; crane as Scorpius, its tail over the galactic centre; another fox and crane as Lynx tail over Cancer.

On another pillar he sees five rearing cranes as three stars in Cepheus, and Draco neck star Altais, and Draco’s hip, with a cup-hole as Polaris. But Polaris had no special function in the Gobekli sky. If this artwork were a ‘time capsule’, they could have used more clearly defined asterisms, or a grid.

Gobeklians probably had hour decans (see the Babylonian set below, and three kinds of Egyptian decans in Furter 2016: Stoneprint; and in an article in the anthropology journal Expression edition 13). They may have had a zodiac, probably including some of these animals, but Stephany focuses on the galaxy.

On the central pillars of the houses, Stephany sees the foxes jumping forward from the elbows of the ‘pillar people’, as a macro combination of Leo, Coma, and Virgo, with jaws at star Regulus, to tails at Spica. But Leo is never canid. Virgo may have a dog (see the Assyrian decans below), but the sky version of that canid is Lupus (see type 9c in the archetype table below).

There is no consistent scale, projection, stars, or polar context in Stephany’s scheme. He finds shreds of incidental, undeveloped, ‘un-evolved’ conscious logic. The wild goose chase for correspondences reveals popular and ‘scientific’ archaeo astronomy to be stuck in a narrow fundamentalist, developmental and diffusionist paradigm.

On dating, Stephany goes further back than any other author. On pillar D38 he sees the thin bull-fox as summer in Capricornus; pig as winter in Ursa head and Cancer; birds as autumn in Triangulum, Aries and Pleiades. Thus he implies spring and the Age in Libra-Scorpius, impossibly early.

Rampant lions in house H, Stephany sees as Gemini-Orion combinations, their bodies across the galactic gate. But no culture pictured a felid here, and it is usually a summer beast. Spring is more often two antithetical characters (as of Babylonian Nergal’s small serpopards, and the Mayan hero twins). And Stephany’s macro lion would cross the sky feet first, as reclining Gemini also does, but the ‘lion’ would face south-east, away from the horizons and oncoming planets, as precessional griffins in some emblems do.

The two donkeys on another pillar he sees as Bootes inverted, the upper front legs as Coma at the galactic pole; the second donkey as Canes Venatici (Hunting Dogs) inverted. However circumpolar constellations are rarely inverted (jumping down from the pole towards the zodiac). Stephany’s various schemes are cobbled together, like the ‘scientific’ paradigm of chance resemblances and gradual consensus. As if the Gobeklians tried hard to tell each other, and us, something about stars, and about our own time.

Figure 2. Gobekli pillar D43 interpretation by PD Burley (2013, repeated in Hancock 2015).

BURLEY AND HANCOCK SEE THE VULTURE AS SAGITTARIUS SOUTH

PD Burley (2013) interprets some Gobekli Tepe pillar D43 characters as (clockwise from mid right): half-bird and heron as Ophiuchus legs; rearing bird as Scorpius head; scorpion as Corona Australis and Pavo; dot as midwinter sun at the galactic crossing (‘in our current era’); vulture as Sagittarius south, one wing below the galactic centre.

Graham Hancock supports Burley’s interpretation in his own book, Magicians of the Gods (2015, p308 -325), and makes much of the supposed post-dating of the ‘star map’ to our current era. But why would the builders set their clock and their art forward by 90 degrees? The Gobekli autumn sun was in the Scorpius-Sagittarius galactic gate, where our midwinter sun is now (exactly so in 2016, as I published in Mindprint 2014, and noted on grahamhancock.com in an article in September 2015). Burley and Hancock leave the other characters on the pillar unnamed, and take no account of other interpretations.

Figure 3. Gobekli Tepe pillar D43 interpretation by A Collins (2014).

COLLINS SEES THE VULTURE AS CYGNUS, SWAN

Andrew Collins (2014) agreed with Burley and Hancock that the pillar D43 scorpion is Scorpius, but he saw the vulture as Cygnus, its head at Deneb. Both are on the galactic Dark Rift. In his scheme, the headless man (presumably at Libra?) is dying, the ball is his separated head or soul, and House D’s holed stone is rebirth. But Cygnus had no special function in Gobekli times. Collins sees many monuments worldwide as aligned to Cygnus rising or setting, including Avebury (but see a more coherent analysis in Stoneprint p254-255), and the Giza pyramids (but see a more coherent analysis in Stoneprint p201-205). Collins also assumes a stable precessional rate, and a minor oscillation in obliquity, after the Stockwell and Newcombe curve. But Dodwell (2010, see below) contradicts stable obliquity based on known historic obliquity data.

Figure 4. Gobekli Tepe pillar D43 interpretation by Sweatman and Tsikritsis (2017).

SWEATMAN & TSIKRITSIS SEE THE VULTURE AS SAGITTARIUS NORTH

Martin Sweatman and D Tsikritsis (2017) interpret the Gobekli Tepe pillar D43 artwork as a kind of calendar (clockwise from top left): Bird as Pisces. Fox “ibex” as Gemini (but it has no horns, the style is naturalistic). Spider “inverted frog” as Virgo (but two similar spiders on pillar D33’s edge do not resemble frogs. The four ‘bags’ they see as four seasons, but not spaced by their places in the supposed ‘zodiac’). Reeds as abacus for counting dates, planets or comets (but the pillar does not have apparent numerals). Flamingo and ibis as Ophiuchus. H/I-shapes as former pole stars Vega and Deneb (but they are at the edge, thus south of the Ophiuchus. Identical abstracts appear in rock art worldwide). Sitting bird as Scorpius claws or ‘an obsolete asterism’. Skin “man” as death hieroglyph (but why not also a constellation?). Scorpion as Scorpius reversed, head in tail, tail in head (but its universal feature is a tail south-east, bent north-east). Big bird as Libra. Wolf as Lupus (the asterism does not resemble any animal, thus other factors keep a canid here for thousands of years; see the Assyrian list below). Snake as comet or meteor (but meteors radiate. And why not also a constellation?). Dot as midsummer sun (but why in the polar area?). Vulture as Sagittarius (but why reversed, tail first?).

They place Gemini opposite Scorpius, implying a celestial, observational grid, with a celestial pole more or less over Libra. But their four Age Gemini cardinals are on top, thus a kind of calendar and not a zodiac. They explain the positioning as “constrained by the shape of the pillar.” But the design compares to any inspired artwork worldwide (see the archetypal analysis below), and no features seem to be crammed in.

Sweatman challenges archaeo astronomers: “How many configurations of Pillar 43… are a better fit than the current one?” But several are, judging by at least five others, and by the various options that Sweatman keeps open, including “perhaps meaningless”. They claim to have found “orientational ordering of animal symbols” around the scorpion. But no clear scheme emerges. To this shaky edifice they apply several doubtful dating methods (see the dating section below).

DIFFERENT ‘ZODIACS’ MEANS NO ZODIAC

No single ‘zodiac’ interpretation of Gobekli pillar D43 makes astronomical, iconographic, mythic, ritual, theoretical, precessional, or archetypal sense. Each different ‘astronomical’ interpretation adds evidence that the art is not astronomical. Stephany’s two proposals (labelled A or B in the tables) also differ.

Table 1. Four ‘zodiac identifications’ of pillar D43 compared, clockwise from top left.

ENGRAVING Martin Sweatman Paul

Burley

Timothy

StephanyA

Andrew

Collins

SmallBird Pisces ? ? [Pegas.?]
FoxBurrower Gemini ? Cas.Ceph [Lacerta?]
Hut bag [Cancer?] ? Perseus ?
Hut bag [Leo?] ? Draco ?
Spider Virgo ? Hercules ?
Flamingo Opihuchus Ophiuchus Cygnus ?
Ibis bird Ophiuchus Serpens Lyra [Herc.?]
Bird-snake ? ? ? [Draco?]
Bird squat Sc.Claw Scorpius Aquila [Oph.?]
Bird tailcoat Sc.Claw Scorpius ? [Oph.?]
Skin bag/man (death) TriangA ? (death)
Big bird Libra PavoBird  PiscAus [Libra?]
Scorpion ScorpRev. CoronaA AquarN ScorpRev.
Wolf Lupus Telescop. AquarS ?
Serpent (comet?) SagitrSouth Pisces [Ara?]
Circle Sun Sun Lacerta (soul)
Vulture Sagittarius Sagittarius Pegasus Cygnus

Table 2. Potential agreements between ‘zodiac identifications’.

ENGRAVING Sweatman Burley StephanyB Collins
Flamingo Opihuchus Ophiuchus Ophiuchus
Bird squat Sc.Claw Scorpius
Scorpion ScorpRev.  Scorpius ScorpRev.
Vulture Sagittarius Sagittarius  Sagittarius

The only general agreements on this pillar are the vulture as Sagittarius, scorpion as Scorpius, and the flamingo as part of Ophiuchus; but these asterisms are seen in different orientations and contexts, even reversed. Prof Vachagan Vahradyan of the Russian-Armenian or Slavonic University, and Juan Belmonte, also see the scorpion as Scorpius, but probably in the current Western configuration. These three flawed agreements, against about fourteen disagreements, raises suspicion of prejudice, and some coincidence. If there were a horse, would that be Sagittarius? Or Pegasus? Every bull is not Taurus, every fish is not Pisces, every twin is not Gemini. Correspondence ‘theory’ merely elaborates some common sense assumptions about culture. Could archaeo astronomy tell the difference between a myth cycle, a calendar, a zodiac, emblems, divination sets, and a star map? Could it reveal the core content of culture, or explain perception? Correspondences simply mix and match shapes and star lore. Archaeo astronomy needs better theories, and a more scientific paradigm, to rise above the level of a parlour game. Even crafts such as astrology are way ahead of the trans-disciplinary science. And the human sciences do not even study crafts such as ritual, myth, emblems, astrology and divination, thus removing half of human behaviour from the scope of the humanities.

There is a deeper common source of cultural meaning. There is “something more mysterious going on”, as Graham Hancock wrote in his warning against using Zecharia Sitchen’s science fiction or ‘space archaeology’ novels as ‘research data’. The entire conscious, fundamentalist, common sense paradigm of archaeo astronomy is wrong. The “mysterious” thing in the cultural record, is that we have a large universal repertoire of standard subconscious behaviour. That behaviour is imprinted all over the cultural record. But our conscious mind finds it hard to see what is hidden in plain sight. The consequences for our self-image are significant. We did not invent, develop, or change culture. Culture is part of the human package, at least since Gobekli at BC 8000, cave art about BC 20 000, Blombos shelter about BC 70 000, and perhaps even Border Cave about BC 100 000, with the usual ensemble of tools, clothing, cosmetics, and trade. Human behaviour is static, and thus predictable, down to the structure of artworks and building sites.

Figure 5. Gobekli Tepe excavation map (right) as some Cancer stars (left), after Andis Kaulins (2013).
Figure 6. Gobekli Tepe excavation map (left) as Pleiades star cluster (right), after Wayne Herschel (2013).

GOBEKLI HILL: KAULINS SEES CANCER, HERSCHEL SEES PLEIADES

Andis Kaulins (2013) extends his view of various sites as star maps, to Gobekli hill as Cancer. But where is the Hydra head? Why are there two lion houses at the supposed Lynx tail? Why would Younger Dryas people model a village on a dark zodiac constellation? Kaulins believes an ancient survey committee travelled the world to imprint constellations by way of cup marks and enhancing incidental rock profiles; an archaeo astronomy conspiracy theory.

Wayne Herschel (2013) extends his obsession with the Pleiades, and a supposedly habitable planet near its thin end, to Gobekli hill. The archaeo astronomy popular fringe likes codes, maps, time capsules and ‘alien origins’, as Hollywood movies oblige. But many of the sites where Herschel imagines Pleiades maps, express the full repertoire of subconscious structure, unknown to the builders (Furter 2016: including Far Eastern, European and Mayan sites). Pleiades is part of type 2 Builder, which expresses just one of the sixteen types, always at a smaller scale than Herschel’s mega cluster proposals, and not deriving from the sky. ‘Cluster’ is one of the recurrent features of type 2 Builder, and the sky happens to have a cluster in the appropriate place. But not all constellations happen to express archetypal features in the appropriate place. And Pleiades did not mark any seasonal point in Gobekli times. The cluster rose to mythical and ritual prominence from about BC 2300, when it hosted the spring equinox, and remained prominent through Age Aries, up to about BC 80, since it is nearly on the ecliptic, and cardinal (90 degrees) from Leo Regulus, Scorpius Antares, and Aquarius decan Piscis Austrinus.

Popular assumptions in archaeo astronomy are more consistent than their supposed evidence is. Herschel, like many archaeo astronomy and science fiction authors, impose populist myths on the cultural record, and impose various conscious motives on artists and builders, particularly lesser known cultures. Real mythographers and artists express a deeper and more consistent level of archetype. Popular science deals in shallow, rationalised and politicised myth. Even the doyens of ethno astronomy, De Santillana and Von Deschend (1969), fell victim to the ‘scientific’ common sense paradigm of culture. Did Icelandic myth cycles arise from astronomy, degraded to legend? Or do myth, ritual, art and calendars express a common source of culture, each directly from archetype, with occasional references to one another? These cross-references are easily mistaken as deriving from one another, and thus they camouflage their source.

Figure 7. Earth obliquity on a horizontal scale of 200 years per column, and a vertical scale of degrees and 5 minutes of arc per row; from ancient, medieval and historic monumental orientations and observation records (Dodwell 2010). The earliest, isolated value (lower left notation) of a Karnak midsummer sunset of BC 2045, may have been dated too early (Rohl 2007), at 25 degrees 10’, and may be an error of interpretation. The seven earliest orientations average at 24 degrees 2’, thus the curve may be shallower, and the ‘bump’ was about BC 10 000, not BC 3000. The shallow curve on top is Stockwell’s and Newcombe’s assumption, apparently supported by recent European data.

CIRCULAR DATING AND PRECESSIONAL ASSUMPTIONS

Sweatman and Tsikritsis make elaborate arguments and extravagant claims for dating Gobekli artworks: “The probability that pillar 43 does not represent the date 10 950 BC is around one in 100 million.” This date happens to agree with the probable Younger Dryas event, but not due to their methods. Some Gobekli wall plaster was dated to BC 9530 (Dietrich & Schmidt, 2010), a thousand years after the probable impact. Some Gobekli researchers have noted that the soil infill and carbon and bone items in the plaster was older than the buildings. Sweatman sees no obstacle in a thousand years, and proposes a local observational record going back to BC 16 000, about 4000 years before the earliest possible dates for any human presence at Gobekli. They use a syllogism to test their proposed ‘meteor observation records’ and “find an apparent contradiction of our first proposal; resolved when we apply the second proposal. Logically, this implies significantly improved confidence in both proposals.” Thus their ‘zodiac’ identifications, and dating based on assumed observations and certain meteors, and the geological record, all have to agree, for their proposal to work (Their title of ‘What does the fox say’, is parodied in an archaeology blog; ‘What does the bunny say’). They place midsummer in Sagittarius in BC 10 950, or rather between Sagittarius and Scorpius, judging by their graphics. But astronomy automation uses modern values for the rate of precession, which is known from Nasa data to be slightly speeding up, and may have been much slower in the distant past.

Astronomy automation programmes assume a narrow oscillation of obliquity after Stockwell, as adopted by Newcombe. But Egyptian, Chinese, Hindu, Greek, Arabic, Medieval, historic and Mayan data contradict the ‘Newcombe’ curve. Obliquity had reduced at a slowing rate, indicating a larger bump, and fast initial righting; and a semi-oscillation of 599 years (Dodwell 2010, in Setterfield). In the Dodwell graph, the curve should be wavy due to the semi-oscillation that he had found. In addition to these astronomical uncertainties, in an era 5000 years before the earliest and rarest Babylonian and Egyptian astronomical data, earth’s orbital diameter may have been larger, and the moon’s orbit larger; and time slower. There was a different equation of time, or Delta-T in geological time (Williams et al 1998), which may have extended into the Ice Age. Thus automation errors grow exponentially larger further back. But Sweatman and Tsikritsis “know of no reason to question Stellarium”.

Using equinox and solstice sunrise and sunset as calibration dates, and their software, they see a Gobekli midsummer horizon sun at BC 10 950, and a spring horizon in BC 18 000. But the pictures on pillar D43 do not apparently mark a star map horizon. All the characters are more or less upright. Zodiacs tend to picture animals facing ecliptic west. Seasons remain in the same constellations for about 2000 years, depending on how constellations are defined.

The H/I shapes at Gobekli, Sweatman sees as “former pole stars, slightly north of Serpens”, at Vega BC 11 500 and Deneb BC 16 000, “still referenced [in the Gobekli era]… to define north or a preferred direction, by the general orientation of enclosure D, 5 to 10 degrees west of north… at summer solstice sunset… at an altitude of 42 and 67 degrees.” But this is too high up, and too long before Gobeki, to have served as a meridian; while contradicting their daily and nightly visible north. And it implies two thousand years of stubborn conservatism at Gobekli. Or, if it is all “mostly abstract”, as they say, it is not astronomy. And if it is outdated by 2000 years, then it is not astrology, which works on the celestial grid, and from the moving spring point. And ancient religions probably did not last 2000 years. Sweatman adds rhetoric of a supposed Deneb in Lascaux caves (Rappengluck 2004); and of a southern view to Sirius rising (Magli 2016); near the winter sunrise and sunset (Gonzalez-Garcia 2016); and of the Taurid meteors in winter. Then they dismiss orientations as immaterial to their zodiac picture! Their rhetorical wild geese fly all over the sky, but keep their options open by remaining on the ground.

Sweatman and Tsikritsis count thirteen characters on pillar D43, but they exclude the skin bag “man”. Lunar calendars do have thirteen months (at least in recent, known epochs), but the moon does not seem prominent in Gobekli art. And the odd number runs counter to astrological geometry. ‘Thirteenth sign’ theories mistake Ophiuchus and Scorpius, one of the four doubled constellations, as two “signs”, without separating the other three doubles (Taurus Orion, Leo retro, Aquarius Pegasus legs).

Figure 8. Gobekli Tepe pillar D38: bull-fox-bear with horns down, over pig, over three cranes. They could express seasons. Is the griffin on top Capricornus or Virgo? Or are they Ursa with the celestial pole, Sagittarius, and Pisces? The apparent dent in the griffin’s lower muzzle is a cup-mark, or ancient damage.

SOME CONCENSUS ON SEASONAL BEASTS

The four houses or “bags” at the top of pillar D43 are equinoxes and solstices sunrises and sunsets in Sweatman and Tsikritsis’ view, thus four seasons. These they see as Pisces, Gemini, Virgo, and Ophiuchus below right of the others, apparently a celestial grid deviation from their Scorpius. But why is the pelican house not their Sagittarius? And their proposed pole over Scorpius should change their Virgo to their Libra. Astrological beasts and ‘houses’ are used in all cultures, but Sweatman says nothing about astrology, or about iconography itself. Should scientists study ancient ‘science’, and not ancient crafts?

Astrologers practice a broad spectrum of archetypal applications, and they outnumber archaeo astronomers by thousands to one. Yet none have volunteered an astrological interpretation of pillar D43, probably since it is not a practical zodiac.

The search for four seasonal beasts could reveal the astrological Age of the artists. Pictures of four species on two other Gobekli pillars may be the seasons. But to Sweatman and Tsikritsis they chart the changing position of the two Taurid meteor showers during observation of 10 000 years!

Pillar A2 stacks images of a cow, fox, crane. Pillar D38 stacks a bull-fox-bear, pig, three cranes. These Sweatman sees as Capricornus, Aquarius north /south, Pisces; wherein the Northern and Southern Taurids may have progressed (moved forward against background stars) during Gobekli civilisation. But a fox in Aquarius is doubtful. And there is no sign of meteorite radials or snakes in their ‘Pisces’ area, the top left house, or anywhere else. After Gobekli, the Taurid streams may have moved on from Pisces, via Aries and Cetus, to Taurus, if precession was regular, and if these meteorite orbital nodes did progress at six degrees per 1000 years (citing Asher and Clube 1998). From all of this, Sweatman and Tsikritsis “estimate the probability” that their interpretation is coincidental, at 2%, or 98% certainty. But the sky has about twelve regions that could fit these four species, either along the ecliptic or on meridians. And which of the four hosted spring? That alone makes a difference of 6000 years (or more, if precession was slower). Archaeo astronomers are lavish with time. The Ursas could picture any of these four species, and still do in some cultures, partly since Ursa is near the poles, and spans 70 degrees; and Ursa Minor overlaps 30 of these degrees, and adds another 20 degrees. Together they span 90 degrees, covering the ecliptic grid over Leo, Cancer and Gemini, a quarter of the annual sky. There are potential bovids in Taurus, Capricornus, Virgo, and the Ursas (bull legs in Egypt). And potential foxes in Aries, Gemini, Libra, Perseus, Lynx, Bootes, Ursas, and the celestial pole. And potential pigs in Auriga, Cetus tail, Cetus, Canis Minor, Sagittarius, Aquarius, Hydra neck, and Ursa. And potential cranes in Gemini, Pisces, Cancer, Hydra, Ophiuchus, Lacerta, Draco, and Ursa Minor. These options, including Sweatman and Tsikritsis’ candidates, reduce their pseudo-statistics from “98%” to about 8%; provided that pillars A2 and D38 picture two V-shaped legs of observations of the Taurids’ real motion over 10 000 years! No culture has astronomical records that long. Constellation variants do not remain in use that long. Seasonal beasts are updated every 2000 years. And the two ‘beasts’ pillars are far apart. They deserve ridicule for their dating construct, but credit for continuing the search for the four seasonal beasts, which Stephany had started.

The pillar A2 cow is pregnant, inviting structural analysis (Furter 2017, in the anthropology journal Expression; Pregnant is the most consistent typological gender. Citing massive rock art gender data on the rarity of female characters in rock art, of Laue 2015, ASAPA conference paper, in press for 2017). A womb is nearly always type 11, also expressed in Virgo constellation and her alpha star, Spica. The sun in her horns offers the best iconographic date at Gobekli Tepe, since it probably expresses, and perhaps consciously pictures, midsummer sun and celestial pole. All three poles were aligned on this ecliptic meridian in Age Gemini-Taurus (the seasons are always 90 degrees apart). If Gobeklians knew any astronomy, and if the daily celestial pole lay between the invisible galactic pole and the annual orbital pole, we could know where the four seasonal points were. The A2 pregnant cow seems to picture Bootes, who stands over Virgo, and held the celestial pole in his ‘horns’ before this axial era. A2 is a central pillar, supporting the polar interpretation.

The A2 cow’s counterpart on pillar D38 (see the image) is a thin bull-fox or lion-bear. If Gobeklians placed this griffin in the sky as well, it may have been Ursa retro, with the celestial pole in its ‘horns’ at the time (some art traditions picture constellations retro, in the context of precession, usually monsters, not the familiar figures turned backward). Bootes and Ursa held the pole in turn, and still did long afterwards; in Egypt as Bootes spearing the Ursa bull foreleg (Bauval 2006), then spearing the Draco tail, then spearing the Ursa Minor smaller foreleg or Wippet ‘mouth opener’.

Pillar D38 expresses type 4 Pisces in house D, thus the Gobekli winter (Furter 2016; Stoneprint). Subconscious expressions never fully coincide with craft applications such as myths, rituals, art, and zodiacs, but since we do not have direct access to any of their conscious or rationalised media, we have to read the iconography, and compare potentially conscious elements in its symbolism to other early artworks, particularly Ice Age and Sumerian textual legacies (see the Plough list below). If these four species were seasonal beasts, they fit Age Gemini well: A2’s cow as Virgo, fox as Gemini, crane as Pisces; D38’s griffin as Ursa, pig as Sagittarius, three cranes as Pisces (which is two birds in the Persian zodiac, and three birds or fish in the archetypal myth map I had published in Mindprint, and in Stoneprint).

Table 3. Four Gobekli species as seasonal beasts in Age Gemini-Taurus.

D43 A1; D38 FEATURES CONSTELLATION SEASON
Egg Cow, sun;

Griffin, sun

womb, polar

bear?, polar

Virgo,  Gal. Pole

Ursa,  Cel. Pole

summer
Fox Fox canid Gemini,  gate spring
Ibis Crane/s birds, twins Pisces,     solstice winter
Bag Pig bag Sagittarius, gal.centre autumn

These four animals swop positions in art, like medieval cardinal beasts in pillar decoration also do. On pillar D43, each has some features of Age Gemini and Age Taurus1, typical of transitional Age artworks. Fox burrows down over the Gemini-Taurus gate; vulture expresses Virgo and the two Leo types in the same body; skin bag rides on the Scorpius big bird’s back; ibis has the tailcoat body of type Aquarius. In iconography, the subconscious structure remains remarkably consistent, and out of conscious reach, unless systematically demonstrated. Only archetype could sustain this hologram, and its expression in various media, and its craft applications, such as astrology. Crafts do not sustain one another. Thus myth, art, ritual and architecture have their own inspiration and conscious rationalisations, including occasional illustrations, or rather references to one another. These references lure common sense, and science, into the traps of apparent diffusion. The five layers of subconscious structure, and their known elements (see the table below), is over the heads of artists, yet they all express it fluently. Like grammar, iconography is an innate, subconscious competence. Viewers also do not know how it works at deeper levels, but could instantly tell if it were absent.

In myth, fox is the trickster, as Sweatman points out. The entertaining villain may have been a pet, exterminator of vermin, hunting aid, pelt source, perhaps food at Gobekli, where many fox bones were found (Schmidt 2013). There were no dogs yet. Ethiopian, Egyptian and alchemical art makes much of red foxes.

‘ACCURATE SPECIALISED OBSERVATORY’?

Gobekli Tepe hill was “also an observatory”, propose Sweatman and Tsikritsis. But the wet climate, and annual runoffs of mud melt in the Younger Dryas, and animals such as hippo, probably necessitated mountain sites to survive, and hilltop sites (preferably facing south to the sun) to move to the slowly drying plain. Even Arabia was swampy until historic times, and Giza was an island (Gigal 2016).

They propose that “people of Gobekli Tepe were making accurate measurements of precession.” But how could we tell? There is no clear record in the art or in the buildings (but see the subconscious polar precessional tracks in house C, in Stoneprint). Their motivation? “To communicate to potentially sceptical generations… that a great truth about the ordering of the world was known… important for continued prosperity and perhaps survival.” This is science fiction, not archaeo astronomy or archaeometry. “Given the considerable lead-time in developing this knowledge,” (what knowledge? that earth crosses meteor paths all year long?), “we should not rule out even earlier demonstrations of these specialisms.” But Ice Age astronomy is rare, apart from some lunar calendars on antler bone.

Sweatman sees astronomy as the instigator of all of culture: “Symbolism encoded on D43, the date stamp… zodiac signs… H-symbols, demonstrate an early form of proto-writing… at least for astronomical observations.” Did writing develop from astronomy? Abstract shapes appear in art and rock art worldwide (Von Petzinger 2016), either badly drawn characters, or entoptics, with a surprisingly consistent repertoire (Furter 2016, Expression 13). But few known poets, artists and scientists are astronomers. If archaeo astronomy wants to contribute to the necessary interdisciplinary study of the cultural record, it needs better data, methods, terminology and theories. “Similar patterns” and “messages to the future” may be generally true, but are not scientific (Popper 1963). Sweatman’s circular logic is embarrassing: “Given the astronomical theme… the fox… should represent an asterism… to enquire whether other symbolism is also astronomical.” There is much more in the cultural record than fragments of proto-science.

CULTURE CODE IN THE BABYLONIAN PLOUGH LIST

Decanal, hourly or lunar asterisms are common in ancient art. Egypt used three different sets (Neugebauer and Parker 1969). Zodiacs of twelve characters are known from Greek times onward. The earliest known constellations are the Sumerian Mul Apin (Stars of the Plough, or Starry Furrow), of 36 or 66 asterisms. These decans added celestial authority to kudurrus (tax and contract boundary stones), often in registers that run boustrophedon (‘ox-ploughing’, rows alternating to left and right). These ‘astronomical’ artefacts express their own archetypal structure, sometimes contradicting the consciously understood asterisms, which were also subject to their own interchanges and mutations.

Figure 9. Assyrian Kudurru of Melishippak II at Susa (after Pinterest, with archetypal labels and axial grid by E Furter). Hancock (2015) notes that the asterism houses resemble Gobekli ‘bags’, implying cultural contact. Sumerian huts had similar totem animals and poles (Furter 2016), but were socio-economic rather than cosmic symbols. See archetypal analyses of several artworks and artefacts at www.stoneprint.wordpress.com and www.mindprintart.wordpress.com

Table 4. Characters on the kudurru (contract stone) of Melishippak II at Susa, by archetypal number, Type and analogous Month or constellation (noting archetypal features):

2 Builder or Taurus; Enlil ram on his house (tower. More often bovid, but the former Taurus spring had newly precessed into Aries).

2c Basket or star Algol; Anu house (secret, container, woven texture).

3 Queen or Aries; Zababa raptor (long or bent neck, dragon).

4 King or Pisces; Nergal griffin (squatting) with twin post (twins).

5a Priest or Aquarius; Marduk’s house (assembly, priest).

5b Priest or Aquarius; Marduk animal (varicoloured? tailcoat?).

5c BasketTail or Piscis Austrinus; Adad’s horns (6 is often a U-shape).

6 Exile or Capricornus; Adad Storm calf (sacrifice), scalloped post (U-shape).

7 Child or Sagittarius; Shala’s house (often indistinct). The Shumalia store house (bag) bottom left could be his determinant.

7g Gal.Centre: Ninghizidda tail (path).

9 Scorpius; Shala ram (strength, more usually an ibex), with post (pillar).

9c Basket Lid or Lupus; Nushku lamp (revelation, enforcement); and plough (more typical of 3 or 3c opposite).

10 Teacher or Libra; Ninghizidda snake with forward tooth, under a staff (guard), over a scorpion claws determinant (arms up). The claw stars often interchange between types 9 and 10)

11 Womb or Virgo; Gula’s dog’s womb (womb, mother), with a granary? (wheat), fronted by a seated woman? And a vulture? (maternal) on a post (more typical of 11p).

12 Heart or Leo; Heart (heart) of Ninurta lion (felid).

13 Heart or Leo; Ninurta lion (felid, death, war).

14 Mixer or Cancer; Ninhursag’s house with wedge (polar).

15 Maker or Gemini; Ea goat-fish (more typical of 6), leg out (rampant). Type 15 should not be a goat-fish, unless the Age Taurus-Aries midwinter transition in Aquarius-Capricornus is transferred to the top central position.

Axial centre; Unmarked as usual.

4p Gal.S.Pole; Paw (limb joint).

11p Gal.Pole: Granary guard’s hip? (limb joint).

Midsummer; Horse post’s foot (limb joint), between axes 13 or Leo and 14 or Cancer; implying spring and the cultural time-frame in Age Taurus-Aries; confirmed by type 15 or Gemini at the top centre of the spatial structure.

All five layers of structural expression are subconscious to artists, architects, builders and members of any culture. Babylonian asterisms are assumed, based on late Egyptian and modern reconstructions of the Greek zodiac. In Sumerian myth, decans were arrayed on three latitudes or equators: north Enlil 33 (galactic?), central Anu 23 (ecliptic?), south Ea fifteen (celestial?); or a heliacal 34, or a lunar 36. The Enlil 33 is best known from the Assyrian Plough list in seasonal sequence, probably hour markers (adjusted every few weeks), listed here by likely archetype numbers for comparison to artefacts worldwide (with globally recurrent features in brackets).

Table 5. Assyrian copy of Babylonian ‘Plough Furrow‘ hour decans, in seasonal sequence (opposite to the hour sequence), by archetypal Number, Generic label; analogous Asterism; and Babylonian emblem (noting archetypal features):

2c Basket or star Algol; Plough; Aries Triangulum (knife), held by type 2 Perseus or type 2 Andromeda.

2 Builder or Taurus Pleiades; Large matted star (cluster, woven texture 2c). Archetypal spring ‘house’.

2 Builder or Taurus Pleiades; Seed (cluster), ploughed funnel, wolf; perhaps Hyades (cluster), or Perseus (twisted).

1 Builder or Taurus Orion; Old Man, Enmesharra; Orion or Auriga.

15g Gate or Galactic crossing; Crook staff; Orion’s club or Camelopardalis in the galaxy.

15g Gate or Galactic crossing; Large Twins (doubled, of 15), End; Gemini feet or road (gate).

15 Maker or Gemini; Small Twins (doubled); Gemini Pollux or Canis Minor.

14 Mixer or Cancer; Crayfish in estuary, Anu’s home; Cancer, Age Aries pole, archetypal summer ‘house’.

13c Head; Leo Minor (felid of 13), Latarak.

13 Heart or Leo star Regulus; King (more typical of 4, but here a warrior, typical of 13) and Lion (felid) Leg upper bone, and Ursa foreleg (death), perhaps star Duhr (Zosma).

12 Heart or Leo rear; Tail, date palm fan of Erua and Zarpanitum; star Denebola or Coma.

11p Gal.Pole; Enlil who determines Kur mountain’s ‘aptitude’ (moving limb joint angle).

11 Womb or Virgo; Zibaanna; Virgo Spica (crop) or Bootes alpha star Arcturus.

10 Galactic Pole diversion; Before Arcturus, Chegalaju, Ninlil’s messenger.

10 Teacher or Libra; After Arcturus, Baltesha, messenger of Tishpak.

10 Celestial Pole diversion; Large Wagon, Margidda, Ninlil; Ursa or slowly moving Celestial pole.

9c Lid or Lupus; Wagon Shaft. Archetypal meridian, opposite the 2c starting point. Nergal’s Fox (canid).

9 Healer or Scorpius head; Front of Wagon, Mother Sheep (opposite 3 Aries); Scorpius star Antares.

9 Ecliptic Pole diversion; Yoke (juncture on limb joint) of Anu, great heavenly one; perhaps Ecliptic pole in Draco.

9 Healer or Scorpius head; Small Wagon; Hercules (strength) perhaps an Ursa stand-in as former Age Taurus autumn marker.

9 Healer or Scorpius head; Seed Lord. Star Antares, opposite type 2 Furrow. Star on Cable; Libra scale on Serpens chain.

8 Healer or Scorpius tail; Interior of Temple (pillar), first son of Anu; perhaps Ophiuchus (strength).

7g Galactic Centre; Standing gods, Sitting gods (limb joints).

7 Child or Sagittarius; Gula, Goat, Boat (chariot); Buck cocoon (bag, named ‘buck bag’ in archaeology).

6 Exile B or Capricornus; Before goat, Sitting Dog; a late Babylonian midwinter marker.

6 Exile or Capricornus; Goat’s eye, Baba’s messenger.

5c Tail or Lyra; Behind the goat, two stars (double-headed), Ninsar and Erragal.

5b Priest or Aquarius rear; Leopard (varicoloured, felid of 13 opposite). These ecliptic features are below the galactic asterisms of Cygnus Swan, and Cepheus Sea Monster.

5a Priest or Aquarius rear; Right of Leopard, Pig of Damu. This is a clue to what pig icons in all cultures, including Gobekli Tepe, may express.

4p Gal.S.Pole or Pegasus; Left of Old One, Horse (as Pegasus).

4 King or Pisces; Behind Old One, Stag; Cassiopeia at Pegasus or Andromeda star Alpheratz.

==plus an overlap of the first four as higher ‘magnitues’:

3:18 Queen or Aries; Stag breast (sacrifice), Weak stars, Rainbow (bent neck); star Hamal.

2c:18c Basket or star Aogol; Stag kidney, Destroyer; Perseus Algol, formerly a red star.

2:17 Builder or Taurus Perseus; Marduk (twisted).

1:16 Builder or Taurus Orion; Mobile, Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions (cluster), or eclipse cycles, at Galactic gate.

“These are the 33 stars of Enlil”, ends the Assyrian list. But the list has 35, including four poles (three at the galactic pole and Bootes, indicating an Age Gemini-Taurus tradition); and some duplications, and the overlap; and some galactic decans in Scorpius; leaving about 20 characters, typical of archetypal art (average 16, plus two poles, and/or two gates, and/or two of the four transitional types).

Thus the Plough list is at least as archetypal, and mytical, and ritualist, as it is astronomical, or rather calendric. The overlap ‘clasp’ at the end expresses four of the five higher magnitudes of typology (types 1:16, 2:17, 3:18, 4:19, identified in Furter 2014; Mindprint). The other higher magnitude is part of the main list as usual (5a and 5b), where the magnitude jumps from base16 to base17 (see the list of archetypes below). Thus the ‘periodic table’ of culture is almost as complex as chemical elements with orbitals, atoms with quarks, or DNA with haemoglobin knots.

Culture parades its structure in stories and pictures, but conscious distractions are part of their camouflage. Against the elegant complexity of archetypal logic, Schaefer’s (2006) view that the Plough decans were “zodiac precursors” seems incorrect. We do not see Greek dramas as ‘soap opera precursors’, rather as more elaborate or esoteric expressions of culture, which also has dumbed-down versions. The late Assyrian version we have, of BC 687, was contemporary with the Greek zodiac, and there is probably some referencing between them. Decans are elaborate, and zodiacs are minimal versions of archetype on a stellar canvas. Both reveal the common source of cultural media, perception, nature, and the structure that underlies nature. The sky is not the only, and not the primary canvas of culture.

There is a fox in the Plough list, among three canids: type 2 as Perseus, or his legs, as a wolf over a furrow (well known among alchemical emblems); 6 Before the Goat, Sitting Dog (shuffling midwinter marker, known in Greek lore, archetypally in Capricornus); 9c Lid or Lupus as Nergal’s fox (canid). Star lore has a few more canids, notably Canis and Canis Minor of 15 Maker or Gemini, but each is distinctive, and differentiated by their other typological features If this Lupus fox harked back to Babylonia or Sumer, that would not imply that oral traditions sustain culture. Foxes play the same roles worldwide, but that does not imply that culture only dramatises animal behaviour. Average global frequencies of recurrent features clearly indicate a subconscious repertoire. When bards tell one another ‘their’ myth cycles, they do not attach frequencies to each recurrent feature, such as twisted posture, bovid, arms up, staff, felid, womb, canid, kind of canid, and so on. There is a layered kind of ‘Zipf code’ in culture, as there is in language. Speakers and writers use certain words twice as often, and half as often, as certain other words (Zipf 1935). Archaeo astronomy needs an interdisciplinary approach, including the philosophy, psychology and iconography of archetype, to study the cultural record.

ARCHETYPE CONTAINS CLUSTERS OF MEANING

Cultural media use several kinds of symbolism, such as syllogism, synedoche, allegory; and they do so interchangeably, just as our dreams do. Ploughs, sowing, reaping, foxes, snakes, dragons, teeth and soldiers play out dramas that only our collective subconscious, within our natural environmental niche, could sustain. One of the astronomical versions, of one of the details of our cultural repertoire, is a small canid on the polar ‘plough’, as in the Greek-Egyptian Dendera round zodiac. One mythic version is Samson’s foxes with torches tied to their tails, set loose in an enemy’s corn field. An Akkadian Agade cylinder seal shows two gods ploughing with a lion and a dragon, perhaps type 15 Maker or Gemini, ‘controlling’ the pole or plough by a ‘plough rope’ via Ursa and Draco. The hand of one god is a scorpion, indicating a celestial meridian between Gemini or the gate, and Scorpius or the galactic centre gate. There is also a tooth, bird, eight-pointed star (one of the three poles, often mistaken as a planet), crescent in a field, and three furrows (equators). The dragon extends from star, to field, to plough, its teeth ploughed in, as in the Egyptian hieroglyphic pun for goddess Sirius sinking and re-arising yearly; and as in the Greek myth of Cadmus.

Myth, art, calendar, ritual and asterisms together reveal the core content of culture. It is not all about certain codes or messages from ancestors. The list of known features of recurrent characters in art and architecture, and their average frequencies, is growing (after Furter 2014, 2016, expanded in June 2017, see an update on www.stoneprint.wordpress.com).

Table 6. Archetypes by number, label and analogous constellation (not ‘sign’); some known recurrent features with their global average frequencies:

[UPDATE 2019; The list of known recurrent features and averages was expanded by adding data from ancient miniature artworks, including Babylonian, Indian and Greek seals. See Stoneprint Journal 5 2018, and some 2019 posts].

1 /2 Builder or Taurus; twisted 48%, tower 22%, bovid 19%, cluster 14%.

2c Basket; secret 17%, container 13%, woven texture 13%.

3 Queen or Aries; long or bent neck 37%, dragon or griffin 14%, sacrifice 13%, school 11%, knife.

4 King or Pisces; squatting 25%, rectangular 20%, twins 11%, king 9%, bird 6%, field 6%, furnace.

4p Gal.S.Pole; limb joint 50%, juncture, spout 13%.

5a/5b Priest or Aquarius; assembly 30%, varicoloured 30%, hyperactive 30%, horizontal 30%, priest 15%, water 15%, tailcoat head, heart (of 12), camouflage.

6 Exile or Capricornus; egress /ingress 48%, sacrifice 13%, small 13%, U-shaped 11%, amphibian, double-headed.

7 Child or Sagittarius; unfolding 17%, bag 13%, rope 12%, juvenile 10%, chariot 8%.

7g Gal.Centre: water 15%, gate.

8/9 Healer or Scorpius; pillar 50%, bent forward 30%, healer 11%, strength 9%.

9c Lid; revelation 15%, with snake or canid.

10 Teacher or Libra; arms V/W-posture 50%, staff 17%, guard 15%, canid, hunt master, ecology.

11 Womb or Virgo; womb /interior 87%, mother 60%.

11p Gal.Pole: limb joint 68%, juncture.

12/13 Heart or Leo; heart /interior 85%, felid 20%, death 33%, war 17%.

14 Mixer or Cancer; ingress /egress 50%, bird 10%.

15 Maker or Gemini; rope 30%, ordering 25%, bag 10%, face 10%, doubled 10%, canid 8%, creation, churn, sceptre, mace, rampant.

15g Galactic Gate; gate 20%, river 6%.

Certain limb joints near the centre of artworks play ‘polar’ roles:

Axial centre or ‘ecliptic pole’; single point 100%, limb joint 26%.

Midsummer or celestial pole; limb joint 50%.

Midwinter or celestial south pole; limb joint 37%.

ARCHETYPES ON PILLAR D43

The design on Gobekli pillar D43 subconsciously expresses the usual five layers of archetype, including the 16 characters, several of their optional features, their sequence, the ocular axial grid, the polar structure, and the time-frame orientation.

Figure 10. Gobekli Tepe pillar D43 (after B Steinhilber /DAI. Archetypal labels and axial grid after Furter 2014, 2016). This paper makes a small correction to the 15-7 axis, since type 15 Gemini is recognised as a canid burrowing to the right.

Table 7. Type labels; Characters on Gobekli pillar D43 (noting archetypal features):

1 Builder or Taurus Orion; Reed hut (see Inana huts of twisted reeds, with animals and totems). Some Gobekli stone figurines have loophole bodies, like Chinese ‘house’ weights for leather covers, and Babylonian ‘hut’ trade weights.

2 Builder or Taurus Pleiades; Same hut or keep.

2c Basket or Perseus star Algol; Spider (weave).

3 Queen or Aries; Flamingo (long neck).

4 King or Pisces; Water-bird or ibis (bird), squat body (squatting).

4p Gal.S.Pole; Bird neck bend (limb joint).

5a Priest or Aquarius; Water-bird heart (heart of 12 opposite), or tail (tailcoat head).

5b Priest or Aquarius; Bird sitting (horizontal), near the axial centre (ingress of 6).

6 Exile or Capricornus; Triangular body or tailcoat (more usual at 5).

7 Child or Sagittarius; Skin (bag), head blank. Perhaps a bird meat fermentation cache. Often a transforming cocoon or ‘buck bag’ in rock art.

7g Gal.Centre; Large bird’s neck (limb joint), perhaps on water.

8 Healer or Scorpius tail; Large bird, forward (bent).

9 Healer or Scorpius head; Scorpion (rare in art, but expressed in Gobekli, Western and Mexican zodiacs).

9c Basket Lid or Lupus; Wolf (canid).

10 Teacher or Libra; Snake (guard? More typical at 9c).

11 Womb or Virgo; Womb (womb) of vulture, maternal (mother, as of the Egyptian vulture Mut).

11p Gal.Pole; Vulture elbow (limb joint).

12 Heart or Leo rear; Pendant (heart, opposite heart-shaped body at 5a).

13 Heart or Leo front; Vulture or eagle, militant (war).

14 Mixer or Cancer; Small bird (bird), far from the centre (egress).

15 Maker or Gemini; Fox (canid), burrowing (rampant inverted). Some authors identify it as a felid based on the long tail, probably an error. Some authors identify it as a left-facing ibex, certainly an error.

15g; Gal.Gate; Gap (gate) between two houses.

Midsummer; Orb. Confirmed by the vertical plane. This marker places summer on the axis of Leo1, implying spring and the time-frame in Age Taurus1, as in some other Younger Dryas artworks and buildings. However the time-frame is probably before work, as usual, expressing the era of the perceived formation of the culture.

Iconographic dating in artworks is approximate. Cosmology and myths are aids to interpretation, but art is not astronomy, nor just illustrations of myth, or ‘culturally conditioned’ trance visions, as some rock art researchers believe. Art is a fully independent cultural medium. Visual and spatial expressions operate at several levels of scale in all cultures. Pillar D43 itself expresses type 4 King in house D; while house D expresses one of the two type 15 Maker houses in Gobekli village. Similar scale levels on sites in Egypt, India, Africa, Europe and Mexico have the same level of complexity, thus culture, and human behaviour, is a given quanta, independent of the level of economic and technological maturity of the society.

SUBCONSCIOUS BEHAVIOUR IS HARD FOR THE EGO TO ACKNOWLEDGE

Artists do not await or consult astronomers, astrologers, philosophers, or dreams. And artists did not, and still do not learn, teach, record or follow a programme or code down to minute detail of archetypal features. It is all innate in our eye, hand, mind, and environmental co-ordination. And it is compulsively complete. Art and culture is all or nothing. We could not tell, design or build a different ‘story’, or half a story. We did not invent culture, and we could not change it. Thus the cultural record offers access to objective meaning, but it comes with uncomfortable implications for our ego.

Structural art analysis now enables conscious access to culture, and to subconscious behaviour. Human culture outlives ‘different’ cultures, its core content and styling options intact, immune against tampering. Sweatman and Tsikritsis propose that “The implications of coherent catastrophism (Younger Dryas meteorite impact) are profound, for how we interpret evidence of past events (archaeology, geology, anthropology, climatology, etc).” They estimate that the implications of a Gobekli zodiac, or systematic astronomy, would be “staggering”. But all cultures have zodiacs, decans, calendars, astronomy, and occasional artistic geniuses. The implications of archetype in the cultural record are greater than the mere presence of the usual media. And archetype raises larger questions: what are perception, meaning, behaviour, culture, and nature?

Gobekli Tepe offers a precious halfway point between Ice Age cave art, and Sumerian civic multi-media records. It deserves meticulous multi-cultural study. A brief remark in an article on Graham Hancock’s website, labels the archetypal approach as ‘lazy’, compared to the presumably hard work of correspondence ‘theory’. However correspondence theories turn out to be idle speculation on where recurrent motifes may have ‘originated’, usually ending in favour of the earliest known cultures and sites. Thus Gobekli is now considered evidence of a ‘mysterious ancient super civilisation’, to borrow Hancock’s term.

The net result of diffusionist games of ‘broken telephone’ or imperfect imitations, and successive ‘Russian boxes’ in the search for cultural inventors, adds up to already known routes of trade, acculturations and aspirations. Diffusion may involve some research, but it reveals nothing of culture or behaviour itself. Considering the theoretical context of archetype, already developed in philosophy, reflexology, psychology, anthropology, sociology, and cultural crafts (Furter 2016); structural anthropology is not ‘lazy’. Instead, the subconscious functions of cultural media strain our common sense assumptions.

Popular anthropology could not be blamed for its theoretical deficiencies, while some of its scientists remain stuck in the eternal catch-22s of the conscious, logical, causal, diffusionist, developmental and ‘evolutionary’ paradigm of culture. There is something much more natural in culture. Human nature lies camouflaged in the forests between the footpaths of common sense logic.

SOURCES AND REFERENCES

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Asher, D.J. and Clube, S.V.M. 1998. Towards a dynamical history of proto-Encke. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, Vol. 69, iss. 1, 149-170

Banning, EB. 2011. So Fair a House; Gobekli Tepe and the identification of temples in the PPN Near East. Current Anthropology, Vol 52 n5, Oct, p619-660. Univ of Chicago Press

Bauval, R. 2006 Egypt code. Century

Burley, PD. 2013. Gobekli Tepe, Temples Communicating Ancient Cosmic Geography. www.grahamhancock, March. Also in Hancock 2015 [DISPUTED ABOVE]

Collins, A. 2014. Gobekli Tepe, genesis of the gods. Bear & Co, USA

De Santillana G, Von Deschend H. 1969. Hamlet’s Mill: An essay on myth and the frame of time. Boston: Gambit

Dodwell, GF. 2010. Obliquity of the ecliptic; Ancient, mediaeval, and modern observations; in Setterfield, http://www.setterfield.org/Dodwell_manuscript_1.html

Firestone R.B. et al. 2007. Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12 900 years ago that contributed to the mega-faunal extinctions and the Younger-Dryas cooling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Vol. 104, issue 41, 16016-16021

Furter, E. 2014. Mindprint, the subconscious art code. Lulu.com, USA

Furter, E. 2015. Art is magic. Expression 10, Dec. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2015. Mindprint in mushroom /psiclocybin, peyote /mescalin, sugar, and chocolate art. On www.mindprintart.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2015. Rock art expresses cultural structure. Expression 9. Atelier Etno, Italy. Also in: Rock art Where, When, to Whom. Ed. E Anati 2016

Furter, E. 2015. Structural rock art analysis. Association of Southern African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA), Harare. Univ of Zimbabwe, in press for 2017

Furter, E. 2015. Art and Rock art express the structure of culture. www.grahamhancock.com Author of the Month, September

Furter, E. 2016. Colonial artists re-style the same characters. Expression 14. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2016. Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities. Four Equators Media, Johannesburg, South Africa. Extracts on www.stoneprint.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2017. Pregnant is the most consistent typological gender. Expression 15, March. Atelier Etno, Italy

George, L. 2013. Painting postures: Body symbolism in San rock art of the North Eastern Cape, South Africa. M thesis, Univ. Witwatersrand, wiredwits

Gigal, A. 2016. Megalithomania lecture on Giza island; http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/2016/05/megalithomania-antoine-gigal-the-divine-island-of-giza-3355165.html

Gombrich, EH. 1979. 1984 Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art. Cornell Univ. Press

Hancock, G. 2015. Magicians of the gods. Coronet

Herschel, W. 2015. Hidden Records, website [DISPUTED ABOVE]

Hunger and Pingree. 1999. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia

Jung, CG. 1934, 1954. Archetypes of the collective unconscious. CW

Jung, CG. 1964. Man and his symbols. Dell

Laue, G. 2015 Gender statistics in South African rock art; preliminary report. ASAPA biennial conference, Harare. University of Zimbabwe, in press 2017

Leach, E. 1970. Claude Levi-Strauss. University of Chicago Press

Neugebauer, Otto; and R Parker. 1969 Egyptian astronomical texts 3; Decans, planets, constellations and zodiacs. Brown Univ

Popper, Karl. 1963. Conjectures and Refutations. London. Routledge

Rappengluck, M.A. 2004. A paleolithic planetarium underground, the cave of Lascaux Part 2. Migration and Diffusion Vol. 5, iss 19

Rohl, D. 2007 Lords of Avaris. Century

Schaefer, Brad. 2006. Origin of the Greek constellations. Scientific American, Nov

Schmidt, K. 2003. The 2003 campaign at Göbekli Tepe, southeastern Turkey’. Neo-lithics Vol. 2, 3

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Sweatman, M, and Tsikritsis, D. 2017. Decoding Gobekli Tepe with archaeoastronomy: What does the fox say? Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 17, no. 1 [DISPUTED ABOVE]

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Von Petzinger, G. 2016. First signs: Unlocking the mysteries of the world’s oldest symbols, Atria

White, Gavin. 2013. Babylonian star lore, an illustrated guide. Website; https://solariapublications.com/2011/10/25/mul-apin/

Wylie, Alison. 1989. Archaeological cables and tacking: the implications of practice for Bernstein’s options, beyond objectivism and relativism. Phil of Social Sciences 19, n1, March

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Categories
Stoneprints in historic Western sites

Subconscious content in Pippa Skotnes’ San window adds to UCT art politics ironies

Artworks and art galleries rarely become a public socio-political battleground, as in the 2016 -2017 University of Cape Town (UCT) student bonfire, and offical censorship attempt. Subconscious content in Pippa Skotnes’ San-styled window add to the ironies.

UCT removed, covered, draped and otherwise sacrificed some artworks to the fickle causes of transformation in education. Several ironies in this South African art debacle, offer rich data for academic culture clash debates in social anthropology.

Archetypal structural analysis of some of the banned artworks, and of some of those remaining on the walls, confirm my evidence in Mindprint (2014), and in Stoneprint (2016), that all recognised artworks worldwide subconsciously express the same core content, as a kind of visual grammar, or cultural DNA. Only styling, and apparent conscious intention, allows socio-political claims to culture. The core content offers an objective lexicon of meaning against which many human scientific terms, and even the subject and science of semiotics could be defined (See Furter on semiotics as the natural structure of meaning, in Expression 16).

Polities want to link their leaders to some recognisable symbols, to appropriate an identity (see Endicott and Welsch 2005: Taking sides). Cultural identity is invariably linked to aspirational values, such as ‘old, pure, rich, complex, open, sustainable’; while underdogs demonstrate their suffering (such as struggle theology), continuing well after gaining freedom and prosperity. Student leaders found little to appropriate in the remnant cultural record of colonialism, Western democracy, and attempted idealisation of rural life. De-colonised people worldwide demand the lie of former utopias from ‘their’ arts; while arts demand of ‘their’ sciences to legitimise cultural kitsch (Endicott 2005, citing Turner vs Hagen; Clifford vs Dutton). The streets and galleries of Paris, London, and west and east Berlin, once reflected the same identity struggles against status quo burdens, each wave of re-styling leaving its own stylistic burdens on the visual and architectural fabric. Among the worse of these burdens, by almost any measures, are the populist revolutionary and communist burdens in art and culture in formerly communist countries.

Archetypal analysis escapes socio-political relativism by revealing the subconscious, compulsive, typological and spatial framework of visual and architectural expression, that is not taught or learned anywhere, and that all artists worldwide, in all ages, follow unawares, in great detail.

The Smuts House San window of breezy bags

Pippa Skotnes designed some of the UCT Smuts House ‘rose’ windows, using contemporary, democratic, and some indigenous themes and styling, to counter-balance the Euro-centric cathedral matrix and heraldic styling of the colonial era windows. In a similar programme at Wits University, Cyril Coetzee painted a 9-metre canvas titled T’Kama Adamastor, a visual narrative of Andre P Brink’s parody of colonial views, showing the arrival of Portuguese ships, soldiers, priests, traders and cosmogony, through Khoekoen eyes, but in Renaissance styling (Vladislavic 1997). Archetypal analysis of the Coetzee canvas (Furter 2014: Mindprint, p128 -129) reveals a tripled expression of the universal subconscious structure. For comparison, the same kind of multiple ‘geared’ mindprint was demonstrated in Egyptian Naqada designs (Mindprint p126); in several Ice Age (p150-151 etc); African, and American (p140 -141) rock art works; and in a Smuts era political art cornice in the Pretoria old town council chamber (p159), where incidentally some of the type 11 wombs (literally) are of Voortrekker women, and some of black servant women.

Archetypal analysis of another artwork by prof Pippa Skotnes, ‘Down here a starless sky’ (Mindprint p209), confirmed that learned artists (including prof Cyril Coetzee) express subconscious structure to the same average of detail as novice artists, or as rock artist. And despite great learning in iconography and the rest of the art history curricula, including alchemy in the case of Coetzee, schooled artists likewise did not know any comprehensive details, or even of the existence of the five layers of mindprint (author’s conversations and correspondence with Coetzee, Skotnes, Eljana van der Merwe, Jean Lefay, and several other artists).

Whether an artist develops an individual style or programme; or designs for a broad market or for a commission; or mimics a recognised style (such as pseudo-San art by Oscar Stoppforth, by Walter Battiss, by Pippa Skotnes in the window discussed here; or pseudo-Egyptian art by modern artists; or pseudo-Dali styling as by Michael Yakono), the resulting designs are almost indistinguishable from ‘original’ ethnic artists, and differ only in their media, textures, techniques and provenience.

This article offers the standard format caption of the characters, in their standard peripheral typology sequence, with the archetypal features they express, the polar markers, and the cultural Age. Then follows a note on the general theme, and some comments on the ironies in ‘us and them’ culture debates; and a ‘blank’ version of the standard archetypal analysis caption (updated in May 2017 by extending the number of identified typological features, from a recently extended database).

Compare archetypal analysis of the Skotnes San window in this article, with ‘real’ San and other artworks, on http://www.mindprintart.wordpress.com or on http://www.edmondfurter.wordpress.com.

Pippa Skotnes: Wind in Kabbo’s window, UCT, Smuts House window. Stoneprint labels and axial grid by Edmond Furter.

The sequence of archetypes in the Smuts House San-styled window, Wind in Kabbo’s window, by Pippa Skotnes, is:

Type /analogous Season; Character (noting archetypal features):

1 Builder /Taurus; Antelope? (bovid) obscured by the frame, part of a ‘bag’ of seven animals (cluster).

2 Builder /Taurus; Antelope? (bovid, part of a ‘bag’ of seven animals (cluster); and a large antelope (bovid) in twisted posture (twisted).

2c Basket /Algol; Swift-person or swallow-person (more typical of 1 /2), or bag stitches (container, woven texture).

3 Queen /Aries; Horse (long or bent neck); calabash ‘head’ (long or bent neck); and on a closely adjacent axis is the large antelope with bent neck (long or bent neck, sacrifice). These three characters are on two axes, opposite the two eyes of a geometric character at 10, which also has a bent neck (typical of sacrifice in symbolism worldwide).

4 King /Pisces; Wagon profile (rectangular, not counted here since the work includes four wagons and a house); two occupants (twins, not counted here since four wagons have two occupants each), perhaps a ruler (king).

4p Galactic South Pole; Jaw (limb joint) of a leopard (varicoloured, typical of 5).

5a Priest /Aquarius; Farmer with a gun (hyperactive).

5b Priest /Aquarius; Status character in a wagon (priest?).

5c Basket Tail /Piscis Austrinus; Basket? (weave).

6 Exile /Capricornus; ‘Eye’ of a bag, visible in high resolution images.

7 Child /Sagittarius; Schematic geometric person (unfolding) in a formling (unfolding).

8 Healer /Scorpius; Spiral engraving on a boulder (pillar).

9 Healer /Scorpius; Sun engraving on a boulder (pillar).

9c Basket Lid; Nested V-shape cross engraving (textured).

10 Teacher /Libra; Two ‘eyes’ of an L-shaped formling.

11 Womb /Virgo; Reptile-shaped bag ‘womb’ (interior, mother).

12 Heart /Leo; Gunman (weapon, death, war) in a house (interior), front rounded (rounded, bastion).

13 Heart /Leo; Driver (weapon) in a wagon (interior).

14 Mixer /Cancer; Animal near the centre (ingress /egress).

15 Maker /Gemini; Master (order, smiting).

15g Galactic Gate; Net (rope of adjacent 15, sometimes a grid shape, as in some Zimbabwean works, and in the Coricancha gold plate mural in Peru).

Axial centre; Bag tassel (juncture).

Midsummer; Another tassel (juncture).

Midwinter; Another tassel (juncture). The solstice axle is on axis 13 or Leo, placing spring and the cultural time-frame in Age Taurus2, typical of most works made in Age Aries (framed by the foregoing Age), and of alchemical works in all ages.

General themes in this stained glass window include type 11 Womb, typical of gestation and interiors; and type 15 Maker, typical of bags (see the four large bags in the central design, and compare to bags or huts on Gobekli Tepe pillar D43), ropes, re-creation, social order, and appropriation.

All five layers of structuralist expression are subconscious to artists, architects, builders and members of all cultures. The conscious and symbolic themes here include transparency, inspiration, conservation, nature-culture balance, spirituality, and the value of minorities, as part of a commission to broaden the iconographic scope of the visual and historic texture of the university by including indigenous styling.

The analysis score [see an expanded scoring formula in later posts] is 28/70 features, 20/20 axial points, 4/5 polar markers, 0/2 planar or cardinal orientations, 3/3 thematic features; total 55/100, minus 5 extra characters off the axial grid; total 50%, in the lower average range of the global average sigma variation from 40% to 80%. More study of the San ethnography from which Skotnes drew some of the images, and the assumed narrative, and of the conventions that she adopted, could change the score.

Typological labels and features

In any artwork, or on any building site map, containing eleven or more characters, rooms, or buildings; cut and paste these labels to identify characters and structural points. Pairs of opposites are given above-and-below one another. Some pairs may remain unused (often 2c, 5c, 9c, 13c; or 1v8, or 12v5a):

1Build 2Build 2cBaskt 3Queen 4King 4p
8Heal 9Heal 9cLid 10Teach 11Womb 11p

 

5aPriest 5bPriest 5cTail 6Exile 7Child 7g
12Heart 13Heart 13cHead 14Mix 15Make 15g

 

cp csp ? ? ?

 

Labelling and identification of the axial grid, always support one another. Test for pairs of opposite eyes until a centre point emerges, then identify the heart or inner ‘eye’, and womb or unborn eye, which always express type 12 or 13 Heart, and type 11 Womb.

The mindprint ,model of structuralist anthropology lists the sixteen archetypes, and eight intervening points, and five polar points, by way of about 75 known recurrent features, each with its own average frequency of occurrence [UPDATE; the list of known features and frequencies was expanded by additional data in 2018, see Stoneprint Journal 5. Here is the 2017 list];

Type label; features with their global average frequencies:

1 /2 Builder; twisted 48%, tower 22%, bovid 19%, cluster 14%, pit 13%, bird 10%, book 6%).

2c Basket; secret 17%, container 13%, woven texture 13%).

3 Queen; long or bent neck 37%, dragon 14%, sacrifice 13%, school 11%, empress 9%, pool 9%, spring 6%, equid).

4 King; squatting 25%, rectangular 20%, twins 11%, king 9%, bird 6%, field 6%, furnace).

4p Galactic South Pole; (marked 65%, limb joint 50%, juncture, spout 13%).

5a/5b Priest; assembly 30%, varicoloured 30%, hyperactive 30%, horizontal 30%, priest 15%, water 15%, %, tailcoat head, heart of 12, inverted of 12.

5c Basket Tail; (see its recurrent features in the paper Blueprint, on http://www.edmondfurter.wordpress.com).

6 Exile; egress /ingress 48%, sacrifice 13%, small 13%, U-shaped 11%, tree, volute, reptile, amphibian, horned, double-headed).

7 Child; unfolding 17%, bag 13%, rope 12%, juvenile 10%, chariot 8%).

7g Galactic Centre: (gate, water 15%).

8/9 Healer; pillar 50%, bent forward 30%, healer 11%, strength 9%, ritual).

9c Basket Lid; revelation 15%, law enforcement 9%, disc, snake).

10 Teacher; arms V/W-posture 50%, staff 17%, council 17%, guard 15%, market 8%, metallurgy 8%, crown /disc /wheel 10%, school 8%, canine, hunt master, ecology).

11 Womb; womb /interior 87%, mother 60%, tomb 13%, water 11%, library 11%, wheat 6%, law 6%).

11p Galactic Pole: (marked 81%, limb joint 68%, juncture).

12/13 Heart; heart /chest /interior 85%, feline 20%, death 33%, water-work 30%, rounded 26%, bastion 22%, war 17%, weapon 13%, palace 11%, inverted).

13c Basket Head; prediction 11%, texture 6%,

14 Mixer; ingress /egress 50%, bird 10%, tree 6%, canid,

15 Maker; rope 30%, order 25%, bag 10%, face 10%, doubled 10%, pool 8%, canine 8%, creation, churn, sceptre, mace, rampant,

15g Galactic Gate; (gate 20%, river 6%).

Axial centre; (limb joint 26%).

Midsummer; (limb joint 50%).

Midwinter; (limb joint 37%).

The solstices axle or summer-winter orientation, implies the spring point between them, thus setting the cultural time-frame in Age Taurus1, Age Taurus2, Age Aries, or Age Pisces. This time-frame is usually the Age or transitional era before the work.

The vertical or horizontal plane (or cardinal direction on building sites) may confirm one of the polar axles.

The general theme is revealed by the presence of typology features in their usual place, as well as attached to some of the other types. All five layers of structural expression are subconscious to artists, architects, builders and members of any culture.

The analysis could be scored as __/70 features, __/20 axial points, _/5 polar markers, _/2 planar or cardinal orientations, _/3 thematic features; total __/100, minus __ extra characters off the axial grid; total __%, usually in a sigma curve variation from 40% to 80%. [Update; The data formula changed slightly in 2018, and changed again in 2019, as new recurrent features of subconscious behaviour were revealed and added to analyses. See an update in the paper Blueprint, on http://www.edmondfurter.wordpress.com).

Ironies in art censorship

Several ironies are raised by the UCT banning or denouncement of the pseudo-San styled Smuts House window by Pippa Skotnes. Visual censorship could be labelled blank-facing, after the Johnny Clegg song ‘Hasiem Bonanga’ (I may not see his face), about the Apartheid regime’s censoring of photographs of Nelson Mandela. The present ironies include:

  • Smuts was an active campaigner for finding and curating indigenous history and culture (as in the Mapungubwe saga), however patronising the initiative turned out to be in academic practice of the time. Mob rule over the arts, as in the French, British and Russian Revolutions, and now in the education revolution, are strong versions of patronising, or acculturation (ironically largely to a blank wall that could be labelled ‘under development’ or ‘watch this space’), by enforcing ‘kangaroo court’ decisions on public art and thus on the cultural record.
  • Remaining San artists are few (see Khoe tapestries at Wits University’s Origins Centre, which each express a slightly flawed mindprint, perhaps due to some elements of collaboration and cumulation in the creative process).
  • Skotnes understood San spirituality as well as any artist of any colour, or as any UCT student. The contribution of informants to the study of self-acclaimed ‘ethic’ art is typically small (see Keesing v Trask, in Endicott 2005).
  • Students removed and burned some UCT artworks, notably a kind of ‘instamatic’ coloured drawing of themselves clambering over the podium where they had removed the Rhodes equestrian statue; thus censoring a full frontal ‘snapshot’ of their own mob rule. Perhaps some students were offended by the deft way in which the artist captured mob ethic, probably including individuals recognisable by their clothing or antics. That artwork probably also expressed mindprint.
  • The instinct of revolutionary students that the education system is too expensive, as in the Fees Must Fall slogan, is correct (due in part to the artificial cost of big name artworks and installations). But their instinct that art and science should serve ‘the people’ (that is, their new elite), is fatally flawed, to the dire detriment of art, science and their own cu-lture. Senior archaeology students and curators in Zimbabwe, who grew up in the Mugabe regime, express the same sentiment about museums and sites like Great Zimbabwe (see an archetypal site analysis of Great Zimbabwe, and the Queen’s Kraal, on stoneprint.wordpress.com, and on Academia.edu). Just how the cultural record could ‘serve the people’ typically remains vague, or rationalisations of re-appropriation.
  • The UCT arts committee in its collective institutional wisdom, by applying censorship, implied that it understood the artworks on their campus; and that it understood the motivations for displaying art; and that education should serve the emerging and semi-educated elite. These assumptions are not confirmed nor substantiated in any statement, least of all in the public relations drivel of the time, stuffed with attempted political correctness.
  • The main irony, still largely unknown to artists, academics, investors, and the public, is that all complex artworks (containing eleven or more characters in proximity), worldwide, are equally therapeutic, expressive, subconsciously recognisable, and capable of direct use or indirect abuse (as colonial powers abused iconography), and equally capable of appropriating cultural and spiritual resources. In an earlier era of culture clash, herders painted crude white stick figures over inspired and proficient San art panels.
  • UCT anti-colonial revolutionaries did not offer alternatives to the supposedly offensive and colonial works (which I for one would have welcomed, as in my much earlier request to a private gallery in Pretoria to call for tenders to replace a large pseudo-‘African’ mosaic by a big-name European artist, Baldinalli).
  • Few artworks are irreplaceable and invaluable (as Ice Age Cave art is invaluable, and as Gobekli Tepe engravings are, since they are very rare, very old, and integrated into their canvases and cultures; from a time when there were too few people to sustain mob rule. As early Sumerian seals are invaluable, because they add visual meaning to poorly understood texts, and indicate the extent of cultural creolisation between Mesopotamia en India). What went up in flames, and disappeared into vaults at UCT, is not priceless, and mostly over-priced. I propose more slogans; ‘Demand for Big Name art must fall. Supply must increase’.
  • Most of the objectionably Euro-centric art risk of theft, vandalism, or both, are already in vaults all over Africa. A visit to the Johannesburg Art Gallery in Joubert Park is a depressing experience.
  • The UCT art committee had argued for a neutral space for art debate. Ironically, it is doubtful that more than one or two UCT art students per year are destined to fill the void left by art theft, student mob rule, political thuggery, and academic cultural ineptitude. Yet the attempt to discuss art, culture, identity and spirituality coherently in public view, in an era of rapid socio-economic change and migration, is overdue. Here is my contribution; ‘Conscious concept art must fall. Study of subconscious expression must rise’.
  • I remain optimistic that a few blank walls could light expressive sparks, not thanks to, but despite the cross-purposes of the arts committee and the party-dependent and party-serving arts committee.

-Edmond Furter, Johannesburg, South Africa, April 2017. Amended April 2019.

See a post on archetypes in Paris Notre Dame, including a medieval stained glass window, on http://www.edmondfurter.wordpress.com

See more art analysis examples, and peyote, ayahuasca, mushroom and calendric art on www.mindprintart.wordpress.com

Comments are welcome in the Comment window below.

See articles on structural art and building analysis in the anthropology journal Expression, editions 9, 10, 13, 14 and 15, on http://www.atelier-etno.it/e-journal-expression/

Some articles are also posted on www.academia.com

See an article on Ice Age and Gobekli Tepe art in another post.

Order the book Mindprint, by Edmond Furter (2014), with 200 art and rock art demonstrations, including critiques of cognitive archaeology and art history, and an index of 400 tested artworks, from www.Lulu.com

or in South Africa from edmondfurter at gmail dot com.

Order the book Stoneprint, by Edmond Furter (2016), with 130 illustrations, including 40 building site maps, and a critique of the implications for relevant sciences and cultural crafts; at $30 plus postage (or in South Africa, R250 plus postage), by Paypal and via email from Edmondfurter at gmail dot com.

Sources and References

Anati, Emmanuel. 2004 Introducing the World Archives of Rock Art (WARA): 50 000 years of visual arts, in New discoveries, new interpretations, new research methods, XXI Valcamonica Symposium, p. 51-69. Capo di Ponte, Edizioni del Centro

Blackmore, S. 1989 Consciousness: science tackles the self. New Scientist, 122

Boeyens, JCA; Thackeray JF. 2014 Number theory and the unity of science. S African J. Sc. 110

Chrisomalis, S. 2015 Graduate Education in Cognitive Anthropology: Surveying the Field, Soc. for Anthropology

Furter, E. 2014 Mindprint, the subconscious art code. Lulu.com, USA

Furter, E. 2014 More examples of structural art analysis. www.mindprintart.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2015 Art is magic. Expression 10, Dec. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2015 Mindprint in mushroom /psiclocybin, peyote /mescalin, sugar, chocolate art; http://www.mindprintart.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2015 Mindprint in San Francisco public art, and other examples; www.mindprintart.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2015 Rock art expresses cultural structure. Expression 9. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2015 Rock art Where, When, to Whom. Ed. E Anati. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2015 Structural rock art analysis. Association of Southern African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA), Harare. Univ of Zimbabwe, in press 2017

Furter, E. 2016 Colonial artists re-style the same characters. Expression 14, Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2016 Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities. Four Equators Media, Johannesburg, South Africa
Furter, E. 2017 Pregnant is the most consistent typological gender. Expression 15, Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2018. Stoneprint Journal 5; Culture code in seals and ring stamps. Four Equators Media

Furter, E. 2019. Stoneprint Journal 6; Rennes le Chateau stoneprint tour. Four Equators Media

Gombrich, E. (1979. 1984) Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art. Cornell University Press
Gombrich, E.H. (1960) Art and illusion: a study in the psychology of pictorial representation. Princeton University Press, New Jersey
Jung, CG. 1934, 1954 Archetypes of the collective unconscious. CW
Jung, CG. 1950 Synchronicity; an a-causal connecting principle, treatise
Jung, CG. 1964 Man and his symbols. Dell

Kuhn, Thomas. 1966 Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed, Univ Chicago Press

Leach, E. 1970 Claude Levi-Strauss. University of Chicago Press

Levi-Strauss, C. 1973 From honey to ashes. Harper & Row

Ouzman, Sven. 1998 Toward a mindscape of landscape. Eds; Chippindale & Taçon, Archaeology of rock art, p30-41. UK, Cambridge Univ Press

Popper, Karl. 1963 Conjectures and Refutations. London. Routledge

Price-Williams, D, 1987 Waking dream. In Edgar, IR. Cambridge Univ Press

Tresidder, Jack. 1997, 1999 Watkins dictionary of symbols. Watkins

Tsonev, T. 2016 Conceptualizing the nature of abstract representations in prehistory. Expression 13, Atelier Etno, Italy

Vladislavic, I. 1997 T’Kama Adamastor. Wits University Press

Wylie, Alison. 1989 Archaeological cables and tacking: the implications of practice for Bernstein’s options, beyond objectivism and relativism. Phil of Social Sciences 19, n1, March

Categories
Stoneprint introduction

Stoneprint book index

Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities (Edmond Furter, 2016, Four Equators Media, 400 pages, 170mm x 295mm, 130 illustrations) resolves the mysteries of correspondences between ancient cultures. The book reveals the core content and ‘grammar’ or ‘DNA’ of culture. We have an innate subconscious compulsion to express a specific, complex, archetypal set of features, in sequence, and on an axial grid, in all our works.

The book demonstrates the innate universal structure in our works, including art, rock art, houses, kivas, temples, villages, sacred sites, monuments, pyramids (Egyptian, Chinese, Olmec as well as Mayan pyramid fields), and cities.

The examples range from the Ice Age thaw at Gobekli Tepe, Malta, and Scotland; to prehistoric sites such as Babylon; semi-historic sites such as the Giza, Avebury and Stonehenge landscapes; historic sites such as Ephesus, Rome, Axum, Quebec, and Cape Town; and across all continents and cultures, including Africa, the far east, south America (including Nazca) and North America (including Mystery Hill).

Among the cultural media that carry the human code, and camouflage it from our conscious mind until revealed by structural analysis; are rock art, ‘fine’ art, ritual, myth, poetry (such as two examples of Babylonian building rites, and two poems by William Blake) buildings, sites and region (such as Babylonia).

Nature also express archetypal structure. Stoneprint reveals several direct links between subconscious cultural expressions, and the periodic table (when charted on a spiral as by Maurice Peyroux); chemical elements; reflexology charts of our palms, irises, teeth, earlobes and inner ears. Our eye-hand-mind co-ordination expresses the same universal structure in building sites, even by different architects, and different  generations of rulers and builders.

Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities, now enables conscious access to our subconscious behaviour, which is revealed as standarised, rigorous, universal, eternal, complex, yet measurable.

The book places the discovery of subconscious behaviour (first reported by the author, Edmond Furter, in Mindprint in 2014), in the context of the esoteric crafts of alchemy, kabbalah, cosmology, astrology, and art; as well as the context of each human science: art history, archaeology, anthropology (with a humorous detour into popular archaeology), psychology,  and sociology.

The implications of the discovery of the universal stoneprint structure, for popular culture (including various schools of popular archaeo astronomy) , and for the human sciences, are significant.

Order the book Stoneprint, in Europe at E30 plus postage, from Four Equators Media via [edmondfurter at gmail dot com], payment on Paypal.

Order the book Stoneprint in the USA at $30 plus postage, from Four Equators Media via [edmondfurter at gmail dot com], payment on Paypal.

Order the book Stoneprint in South Africa at R300 (including free postage to any Postnet account in South Africa; or plus R30 postage; or plus R60 per courier), from Four Equators Media via 011 955 6732 or [edmondfurter at gmail dot com], payment on Paypal.

The index indicates the broad scope and depth of 28 years of research reported in Stoneprint. Each relevant craft and science is placed in context. Natural expressions are compared to cultural expressions. Each building site is illustrated by a map, and at least two pages of detailed structural analysis.

Introduction
2 Architecture reveals our subconscious building code
3 The Five levels of structure in cultural media
3 The sixteen archetypes, in sequence
4 The axial grid of focal points
6 The four borderline types
7 The two galactic gates or cross-points
7 The polar clock of Ages
8 The six polar points
9 Structural analysis example of a site sketch plan

The cultural context of the human code
11 Alchemy: Crafts reveal chemistry
13 Chemistry reveals biology
15 Kabalah: Natural philosophy correspondences
17 Poetry: Blake’s London- Jerusalem- Golgonooza
21 Poetry: Blake’s Tyger describes expression
22 Poetry: The Stoneprint rhyme
24 Astrology: Calendars reveal divination
27 Cosmology: Direction is everywhere

The scientific context of the human code
31 Art History: Perception reveals gestalt
37 Archaeology: The World Archives challenge
42 Anthropology: Artefacts reveal structure
47 Popular Anthropology: Who did it?
52 Psychology: Behaviour reveals archetype
57 Philosophy: The universe reveals archetype
60 Communication Science: Structure is the message
63 Sociology: Behaviour reveals our self-image
66 Science and esoterica: our split consciousness
70 Why I wrote Stoneprint

73 [Chapter A] Natural elementary maps
74 The periodic table reveals atomic structure
80 Nuclear particles reveal atomic polar structure
81 Compounds confirm the axial pairs
82 Constellations chart our cosmos and myth
84 Astronomical poles in our cosmos
86 A crop circle solar system implies two grids
92 Earth imprints a motto: ‘I oppose artifice’
94 Trails of architecture in two crop circles
95 Numbers have character
96 Mars ‘face’ geology invites human gestalt

99 [Chapter B] Natural body maps
100 Our hands carry the imprint
102 Our eyes are windows to the body and structure
104 Our minds carry the imprint
106 Dental reflexology: the ‘boneprint’ in our cave
111 Our outer ear lobe reflex map
112 Our inner ear reflex map
113 Eye, palm, teeth, ear and organ map
114 Limb joints mark six poles

115 [Chapter C] Natural culture maps
116 Piacenza bronze liver double circle of gods
120 The sixth layer of culture is style conformity
121 Three sets of Etruscan gods integrated
121 Planets express poles and gates, not types
122 Gods or liver maps, which came first?
123 Piacenza city and its walls are cultural stoneprints

125 [Chapter D] Culture maps
126 The Maikop silver bowl paradise
128 Paradise, Fall, and Babel in a nutshell
129 Mapungubwe’s gold foil oracle reconstructed
130 A Venda divination bowl
132 An Italian Goose game board
134 Pedra Pintada engraving oval, and pentagons
138 The Bulgarian Karanovo tablet answers questions

139 [Chapter E] Ice Age sites
140 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe house C, polar boars
147 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe house D, type 14
150 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe house B, type 2
152 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe house A, type 3
154 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe excavation and radar maps
156 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe pillar D43, a culture portrait
158 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe grey pillar
159 Babylonia: Inana huts, Nevali Cori kiva, Kurdish huts
160 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe site perspective
161 China: An Iron Age T-shaped silk drape
162 A Greek healing pillar, and Shinto dressed pillars
163 Spain: Malta’s Mnajdra double stoneprint
164 Spain: Malta’s Gigantija double stoneprint
167 Spain: Hal Saflieni’s underground stoneprint
168 Scotland: Skara Brae plans
169 Scotland: Jarlshof wheelhouses and recycling
170 Spain: A Menorcan taula reconstruction puzzle

171 [Chapter F] Early civil sites in Sumeria
172 Babylonia was a stoneprint in clay brick
174 Babylon city, a vortex of dispersion
176 Two mythical gates
177 King-priest Ur Nanshe builds a temple
178 He built sixteen shrines
179 His crafts reveal subconscious method
180 He casts the circle of eternity, or polar ring
181 He was a visionary like Solomon
182 He works magic: as below, so above
184 He was an inspired architect, like Hiram of Tyre
185 He did not understand the building plan
188 He taxed the clans for construction
190 His allies and contractors
191 He surveys eight rooms, and erects eight doors
193 He set up six slabs as poles
194 An, Enlil, Enki: three equators to survey the site
195 Assyria: T-pillars and Y-tents in an army camp
296 Egypt: Narmer’s camp, and a school camp

197 [Chapter G] Early civil sites in Egypt
298 Sakkara, first royal campus, and a stepped pyramid
200 Teti’s pyramids form a stoneprint in Sakkara
201 Giza pyramid field stoneprint
204 Giza pyramid field is also a polar map
206 Kings Valley tombs are underground stoneprints
212 Queens Valley entrances lost and found
214 A ‘Syrian’ queen in a womb among wombs
216 Edfu temple is a double churn
218 Senmut’s ceiling stoneprint is half zodiac, half duat
220 Duats and decans are arch mutators

221 [Chapter H] Civil outpost sites
222 Nubia: Meroe pyramids speak with their doors
224 Egypt: Nabta Playa slab field counts four Ages
226 Egypt: Hawara labyrinth in Kircher’s Gnostic vision
228 Nubia: The cornucopia of minister Huy
230 Palestine: Jerusalem temple mount hybrid
233 Patriarchs, pharaohs, and kings
234 Palestine: Jerusalem, womb of three religions
236 Judea: Masada, a military stoneprint
238 Turkey: Nemrut hill, crossroad of Persians and Greeks
242 Australia: Elivna rock pavement engraving
244 Ethiopia: Axum is an ark of spiritual mysteries
247 Ethiopia: Lalibela temple field of bedrock ‘hearts’
249 Ethiopia: Lalibela’s Mary church; womb in a womb
250 Ethiopia: A reverse rock imprint spells ‘Rotas’

251 [Chapter J] Prehistoric European sites
252 Ireland: Drombeg house, a cosy double stoneprint
254 England: Avebury and Silbury landscape
256 England: Stonehenge counted three ages
263 England: Damerham circles in radar scan
264 England: Stonehenge landscape radar scan
266 England: Stanton Moor landscape; boulders and ‘ladies’
268 Greece: Phaistos palace, the other Greek labyrinth
270 Germany: Magdalenburg mound graves
273 Scotland: Stennes stone circle
274 Scotland: Cochno stone concentric engravings

275 [Chapter K] African sites
276 Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe, landscape with a womb
278 Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe queen’s yard with a womb
280 A kudurru boundary stone calendar spring bird
281 Egypt: Dendera zodiac summer bird
282 Zimbabwe: Nhunguza and Penhalonga metallurgy floors
283 South Africa: San Bushman painted stoneprints on rock
284 Mali: Nature and culture on a Dogon mud wall
286 South Africa: Lydenburg concentric engravings boulder

287 [Chapter L] Eastern sites
288 India: Buddhist wheel of life landscape panorama
289 India: Sanchi temple gate pagoda engraving
292 Nepal: Kathmandu palace square temple complex
294 China: Beijing Temple of Heaven park, an Aquarian cosmos
295 China: Choukungmu pyramid fields need more research
296 Japan: Nara Basin Horyuji temple, galactic manifestation
297 Japan: Todai temple, a living site
298 Japan: Himeji, Shirasagi-jo temple, White Heron nests

299 [Chapter M] Mexican sites
300 Izapa pyramid field and stelae, new world, same stoneprint
302 Izapa cacao tree ritual stele, a third layer of structure
304 La Venta pyramid field, spire eyes, platform womb
306 Monte Alban double stoneprint works with the landscape
309 Coba, a triple Stoneprint with interlocking ‘galaxy’
310 Uxmal was contested by a witch, a dwarf, and a king
312 Chichen Itza has temples to planets, and a stoneprint
314 Chichen Itza village scene, a busy day
315 Teotihuacan mountain stream, and rain woman mural
316 Teotihuacan pyramid avenue, Leo sun, Virgo moon
318 El Tajin pyramid field, double thunder
320 Palenque lid cosmic tree and double stoneprint
322 Palenque pyramid field, chaos among order

323 [Chapter N] North and South American sites
324 Peru: Machu Picchu, Mayan capital in the clouds
326 Bolivia: Tiahuanaco island’s Sun Gate is the sun type
328 Chile: Atacama geoglyphs with Aquarian tailcoats
330 Peru: Nazca plain geoglyphs express ecological structure
332 Peru: Cuzco’s Coricancha constellations reveal an update
335 USA: California’s Painted Rock, theatre of time
340 USA: Lower Colorado River geoglyphs has a calendar clock
342 USA: Hopi kiva 5mT2, and its village, hinge on a womb
344 USA: Colorado’s Mystery Hill metallurgy plant or tech school
346 USA: Crow Canyon kivas Block 100 has two missing features

347 [Chapter P] Historic Western sites
348 Italy: Rome, eternal city with an Age update
350 Italy: Rome’s gates and bridges are eloquent
352 Italy: Rome’s Capitol Forum, contested but constant
354 Italy: Rome’s Quirinal forums for spiritual order
356 Italy: Rome’s Vatican City, a stoneprint inside type Aries
360 Italy: Brescia has Mark’s lion, Mary’s womb, John’s bull
362 Turkey: Ephesus, former city of Amazons and Artemis
363 Icons: Serapis and Ophiotaurus, half-monsters
366 Spain: Santiago de Compostella, of a son of thunder
367 Spain: St James and Hercules, hybrid planetary characters
370 Canary Islands: Las Palmas governor’s house facade
372 Canada: Quebec, Victorian ideals in stone
374 South Africa: Cape Town’s Dutch forts claimed a footprint

376 [Chapter Q] Structural analysis formats
376 Kinds of media in the 130 examples
376 Commission impossible: design a stoneprint site
377 Emblems, icons, constellations and Tarot trumps

382 [Appendices] Structural analysis formats
382 How to find the subconscious structure on a site plan
382 The structural analysis format
384 About the author
385 Sources and references

Categories
Stoneprint introduction

Art design re-expresses innate structure

The discovery of stoneprint in ancient and modern buildings, is the second call on the human sciences, and on popular culture, to replace the fundamental and supposedly ‘common sense’ paradigm of culture as ‘developed and evolved’, with the paradigm of subconscious structural expression. The first call on popular culture was in the book Mindprint (2014), focusing on structural analysis of art and rock art, with one example in literature (a Mishnah verse on hours and religious symbols). The first call on archaeologists was made in a paper presented at the ASAPA conference in Harare in 2015 (UZ, in press, due 2017). The first call on anthropologists was in the rock art magazine Expression (2015 editions 9 and 10; 2016 edition 13).
Stoneprint in 2016 expanded the demonstration of the human code, or subconscious expression of archetypal structure, to buildings and cities, again supported by examples in literature (two Blake poems, and two Babylonian ritual praise poems on temple building projects, integrating liturgy, economy, philosophy, morality, and architectural features).
Demonstration of archetypal characters, and their clusters of motifs, and the nest of spatial structure, rests on recurrence. Birenbaum (1988) wrote; “A motif can be identified, for practical purposes, simply as any detail that recurs: a kind of character, place, structure, animal or plant, or any feature of the narrative process as it unfolds.” Recurrence and variation are the basic dual mechanisms of abstraction, expression, and meaning in culture and in nature (see protons, electrons, shells and compounds in the Natural Stoneprints chapter). Recurrence and variation enable rhythm, language, art, architecture, society, and music (especially after Bach’s popularisation of the current western scale, which allows modulation between keys). Art characters may seem too varied, and building elements may seem too repetitive, to compare to one another, or to myth. Yet stoneprint now reveals that art is sufficiently repetitive, and building elements are sufficiently varied, to express the same human code. The building blocks of culture are the five abstract layers, like the building blocks of nature are elements, their properties, combinations, and reactions; from indestructible electrons to fragile self-replicating creatures. Our replications or ‘creations’ are equally over-determined………..

[order the book Stoneprint at $30 plus postage from Four Equators Media, via edmondfurter at gmail dot com].

See the archetypal structuralist analysis of the triple imprint in the artwork featured here, in another post.

Categories
Stoneprint introduction

Stoneprint confirms rock art structure

Prof Emmanuel Anati (2004) had noted a combination of innate compulsion, and communicative development in rock art, linked to economic complexity levels. However he also noted that some stylistic elements seemed cyclic.
Anati’s challenge to the World Archive of Rock Art (WARA) was ambitious;
“The study of patterns in the grammar and syntax of prehistoric art, in worldwide documentation… of complete assemblages. Single figures, like single words, do not allow interpretation of cognitive process.”

Anati had called for:

• Global rock art data;
• Separated into five economic phases;
• Distinction between figurative, symbolic, geometric, and psychogram figures;
• Identification of the grammar, syntax, or structure of composition;
• Identification of common environmental, historic, and cosmic components.
Stoneprint answers Anati’s call, and demonstrates that:
• Art and rock art share the same core content;
• Illiterate cultures and literate civilisations express the same core content in visual and other media, including myth, ritual, and buildings;
• Economic phases are irrelevant to the core content of culture;
• Figurative characters and abstract ‘signs’ are interchangeable (as Anati had also found);
• The syntax, grammar, and structure of composition is a complex universal standard, of five layers;
• Environmental and historic components in art are unreliable;
• Cosmic components in art are inevitable (as Gombrich had found), and innate, thus subconscious;
• Innate compulsion drives cultural expression of archetypal structure, irrespective of theme or culture;
• Communication by means of art is unreliable, even in the artist’s own culture;
• Visual communication in artistic format did not develop, but remains confined to subconscious ‘meanings’, as it was in the Ice Age;
• Styling is cyclic, and mutates by fashion or fads;
• Assemblages, panels, or groups of characters, contain five layers of visual, grammar, syntax, and compositional structure. Single characters or groups of less than eleven, express some archetypes, which are difficult to demonstrate without the context of the standard subconscious ‘composition’;
• Art and other media reveal subconscious cognition. Conscious processes are of minor importance to most cultural media, such as art, myth, ritual, and architecture, since artists could explain only their own conscious rationalisations, of visible themes, and of styling.
There is only one art, and one culture, and we did not invent, design, or develop it. Culture, its media, and its artefacts, are shaped by the natural order of things that precede things. We re-express that order in our works, and thus transform materials into artefacts, as well as into universal structure. Culture is a natural given, just as the periodic table, chemistry, DNA, technology, ecology, and economy manifest themselves, and mutate to their own dictates, and maturity cycles, and interactions with other, equally structured media (what Gunderson labels ‘panarchical discourse’). Conscious thought and free will are overrated, while our subconscious minds and behaviour are underrated in the cultural record………….[order the book Stoneprint at $30 plus postage from Four Equataors Media, via edmondfurter at gmail dot com using Paypal ]……….