Greek Cycladic islands salt evaporation pan bases often traced out planetary calendars. One terracotta pan bottom incidentally expresses the archetypal cycle of sixteen types in a rare axial grid. Patterns on the base may induce vortices to speed up evaporation and crystalisation, perhaps leaving faint patterns in the salt cake as a kind of ‘water mark’. The pan formed a kind of ‘womb’. At the handle was often traced a vulva triangle, and two short ‘legs’. Salt cake ‘coins’ were made in wooden, pottery or bronze pans.
General themes in this terracotta pan base (bottom), perhaps made by a mould, include the four half-types, typical of containers and lids, secrets and revelations, heads and tails, options, and woven textures; and type 11 Womb, of gestation (here salt crystalisation); and the polar types (here a rare axial marker, rare axial lines, and circumpolar decans (see similar Egyptian sets of decans in Neugebauer and Parker 1969). This work uniquely hints at some conscious appreciation of some of the five structural levels in nature and culture (sets of optional features; sequence; eye-to-eye axes of opposite pairs; polar markers; and relative orientation). Further study could reveal more about how various cultural media sustain their expressions of archetypal structure, despite occasional illustrations of one another, and copy errors arising in formalised ‘programmes’.
1 Builder; Scribe? (book). Egyptianising indicates a later date (as Hellenising indicates in Egypt).
2 Builder; Fish (SWOPPED with 4, bull, decan Hyades, see caption). And cobra or fish-hook? (twisted).
2c Basket; Caduceus (snakes, weave. Decan star Algol, head held by a Perseus type. C-types are off the axial grid. In this work they are all expressed, as the strongest cardinal cross, perhaps as seasonal markers of the era (see notes below). The general theme here includes half-types, structural points, abstracts (half-figures), and regular geometry (rare in art and building sites). Thus the work may be a conscious model of archetypal structure, the first candidate identified among 600 artworks and 60 building sites.
3 Queen; Ram (ovid, sacrifice). It takes up more than its ideal 20 degree slice, and its bent ground-line indicates conscious interference.
4 King; Throne? (rectangle, king, perhaps furnace?). And bull (SWOPPED with 2, fish?).
4p Gal.S.Pole; Peg or pipe (juncture, spout?). And ingot or plaque? (of 4, rectangle, decan Pegasus Square).
5a Priest; Radiant head or Apollo (sun, of 4, perhaps displaced in favour of the misplaced bull). And noose (ribbon, of 4, decan Pisces ribbon?). And plaque rear (decan Pegasus front).
5b Priest; Ladder, or measure, or two angels? Head (tailcoat head?). Rod or foreleg (more typical at 8/9 Healer. Here a priest?).
7g Gal.Centre; Cross-staff (juncture, decan galactic crossing). The small next to the polar circle may express the abstract edge of the polar triangle (4p-cs), one of many indications that the work is largely subconscious, despite conscious calendric intent. Very few artworks function as star maps or calendars.
8 Healer; Snake (healer) rear-facing (poison neutralised?). Circle (decan Ophiuchus, snake-handler?). Rectangle or podium (pillar).
9 Healer; Small circle. Turtle (decan Hercules, spread posture).
11 Womb; Water monster (decan Hydra). Breasts and midriff (womb). Bear? (decan Bootes, bear tamer), rear-facing (probably combined with 12 Ursa). General themes in the work include sea, salt, gestation, currency, and polarity (here axes, and circumpolar decans).
11p Gal.Pole: Spear (juncture, weapon, of 12). Decans Bootes-Ursa near the pole resemble two cups (decan Crater, Grail, below them). The more usual L-shape of decan Coma and its galactic pole is absent, confirming that the work is largely subconscious.
12 Heart; Ball or drum? (interior, rounded). Kithara or harp? (chest, interior, perhaps decan Ursa?). Bear rear (decan Ursa. See 11).
15 Maker; Loom (rope, decan Canis Minor?). King? (re-creator) with coat (bag), weaving (churn) twine (rope), from wool or cotton? (bag).
15g Gal.Gate; Cotton stock (juncture). Orientation of the work is anchored on the two galactic gates, the handle at 7g (at the galactic centre, where the ecliptic bridges the galactic ‘river’, here at the largest circles), and the furthest edge at 15g, the Gemini-Taurus ‘gate’.
The axial centre or ‘ecliptic pole’ is on the design centre (rare). This point, and its grid, constantly rotates around the celestial pole (labelled c), a circuit per day, thus the work is not usable as a star map, rather a myth map or ritual chart. Here are ten potential ‘celestial poles’ markers. The vertical plane of the handle may indicate a celestial pole on the 15g Gate spindle post base (juncture. Anubis fetish?); and the ‘celestial south pole’ on 7g’s Galactic Centre base (juncture). This plane may place ‘summer’ in Gemini-Taurus, thus ‘spring’ and the cultural time-frame in Age Pisces-Aquarius, confirmed by the thick post on the right. This is our current age (about AD 2016. See ‘Columbian’ discs below). The unique axial grid, with strongest cross lines on diagonals between the half-types, may place midsummer on the 13c or Leo-Virgo spear point (juncture); and midwinter or ‘celestial south pole’ on the 5c peg point; thus spring and the cultural time-frame in Age Taurus-Aries, about BC 1450. This subconscious time-frame is confirmed by the 2c bovid head, and the large X-cross opposite it at 9c, as an autumn equinox marker.
Doumas (1993) suggested that ‘frying pans’ made salt cakes currency. Experiments with a replica of a Castellic dish in France succeeded (Cassen and Vigier 2011). Handles had a female public triangle, indicating a kind of womb. Similar pre-Hispanic pots were found at Sayula, Mexico (Liot 2000), and a similar craft at Tswaing meteorite crater near Pretoria, South Africa.
The format may have been a model for Tibetan Chinese calendar discs, and ‘Columbian’ calendar discs (see below). Here are sixteen hour decans, eight borderline decans (24 hours), and eight polar decans (total 32). Resemblances with Babylonian decans are probably archetypal.
An apparent copy error swopped the Taurean bull and Piscean bird or fish, due to an inherent subconscious ambiguity (both types could be a bird); or a spring marker update from Taurus to Aries; or conscious interference in the spring sector, of a sequence misunderstood as seasonally anticlockwise. The line between ram and out-of-place bull is bent.
STONEPRINT Journal series
This post is an extract from a supplement to Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities. To order the book Stoneprint, or the book Mindprint (on art and rock art), or Stoneprint Journal editions including some full colour pages; or to book slide show talks, or to contribute articles, email edmondfurter at gmail dot com or call +27 (0)11 955 6732.
Social groups always re-express a specific structure in every complex building site, including villages, temple fields, campuses and cities. Known elements of the archetypal structure of culture include some of their characteristic features; their peripheral sequence; and spacing of communal buildings as pairs of opposites, with their focal points on an axial grid with one centre point. We maintain this invisible structure even on sites built and re-built over centuries (Furter 2016). Individual artists do the same in complex artworks, subconsciously using the attributes, sequence, and spacing of the eyes of characters in their artworks (Furter 2014, and Stoneprint Journal 1 2017). Nature does the same in particles, elements, DNA, species, and in the reflexology of our irises, palms, teeth and organs (see inside).
Paris is a particularly dense example of the universal compulsive structure. The city of light re-expresses the same archetypal structure already demonstrated in fifty building sites, including Gobekli Tepe Ice Age village, Babylon, Sakkara, Giza, Kings valley, Queens valley, Meroe pyramid clusters, Nabta Playa, Jerusalem, Masada, Nemrut hill, Axum, Lalibela, Silbury area (see Stoneprint Journal 2), Magdalenburg mound, Great Zimbabwe, Sanchi, Kathmandu square, Beijing Temple of Heaven park, Horyuji, Todai, Himeji, Izapa, La Venta, Monte Alban, Coba, Uxmal, Chichen Itza, Teotihuacan, El Tajin, Palenque, Machu Picchu, Tiahuanaco, Nazca geoglyphs, Crow Canyon kiva village, Rome, the Forums, Ephesus, Brescia, Piacenza (see below), Santiago de Compostella, Cape Town and Quebec.
Furter, ED. 2017. Stoneprint Journal 3. December. Four Equators Media, Johannesburg. Sixteen pages A4, four in colour. $6 plus postage. Order from Edmondfurter at gmail dot com, or via the Comment function on this blog. An extract will be added to the second edition of Stoneprint.
Buildings are durable copies of eternity
Buildings are apparently the most concrete, yet spatially the most abstract of physical media. They divide contesting voids, requiring our minds to hold functional maps. Even in plan view, their spatial structure is more difficult to visualise than a complex artwork. Buildings, camps and cities serve many functions, including protection, exploitation, and as canvases for ritual and abstract protection. Thus buildings are also talismans to influence intangible forces. Imprints of social functions are also divining boards with moving characters and a limited set of optional events. Insurance companies understand events well enough to predict average numbers of events. Divination attempts to discover overdue influences.
As there is no perfect or complete magic ritual, so there is no perfect or complete building, artwork, myth, pantheon or culture. Cities involve several media (see Babylonian temple building materials, trade, rituals, religious, state and economic functions in Stoneprint Early Civilisations chapter). The Bible also notes a list of different crafts required for the temple, with tutelary angels who inspire the relevant skills: “Bezaleel was appointed to make artefacts for the tabernacle. God had filled him with all manner of workmanship.” (Exodus 31:2). Building specialisation, as in the Lanjia Saora tribe in rural India (Dash 2016), requires social structure and a calendar, a social clockwork that synchronises more than work shifts. The USA constitution requires social institutions to enable “the pursuit of happiness”. King Ur Nanshe, King Gudea and their people found the same rewards in their strenuous and expensive building projects, including “separating heaven and earth”, or resolving concepts.
The difference between characters on a rock face, pavement, engraving, paper or canvas; and building members on a site or landscape, is primarily a difference in scale. Art is individual work, and building is social work. Both are enabled by abstract shapes (Dieter 2016) and recognition of analogy. Cities express cultural structure by our collective eye-hand-mind co-ordination. Hints of our ability to subconsciously “act as one” (as King Gudea’s people did on his building site), are also visible in collaborative or cumulative artworks. Like ants, we are capable of instinctive collaboration, but unaware of most of the design parameters of collaboration.
All cities re-express the eternal building code
Our huts, houses, kivas, circles, pillars, fortune bowls, art, game boards, temples, pyramids, cities, constellations, geoglyphs and graves, say much more about us that we ever knew. Structuralist analysis reveals universal repertoire in our subconscious behaviour. The structure also says more about culture and nature than we ever knew, but had glimpsed in nature.
We imprint a natural, abstract structure of five layers, including sixteen characters in sequence, on an axial grid, in all our complex artefacts. The same structure appears in the periodic table, and in reflexology points in our hands, eyes, teeth and ears. A similar structure informs bio-chemistry and DNA. The archetypal expression in our works, or the cultural record, is now readable. Its subconscious elements carry significant implications for the human sciences of art history, archaeology, anthropology, philosophy, psychology, sociology and communication science. The formerly ‘invisible’ layers of our perception and expression, or natural code, now offer the opportunity to integrate the conscious and subconscious halves of crafts, sciences, and culture.
Our works re-express nature, and our place in it. The core content of any old or new culture is now revealed to be as predictable as chemistry, as readable as the periodic table, as translatable as language, as visible as art, as varied as mythology, and as recyclable as building material.
Architects, engineers and builders are not aware of the visual grammar that they could not see, but could never contradict. Archetypal structure and culture existed before we did, and before the universe, and will outlive the cycles of its expression in art and cities intact.
Whether we are few, as when we built the houses illustrated in the Ice Age chapter; or many, as when we built the pyramid fields and cities illustrated in the historic chapters; we express the core content of culture in all our media, with as much apparent variety as possible. But stylistic differences fade when the core content of culture is revealed. We all build, draw, talk, trade, count, strategise, pray and fight the same. Stoneprint lifts the ‘beam’ of self-deception from our cities, and from our supposedly scientific eyes. We will continue designing art and buildings by intuition, but we could never see or study our works with half our brains again.
Cosmology is a canvas of natural and cultural structure
Cosmology inevitably combines properties of nature, of innate perception (which is also a reflection of nature), and experience (within natural and cultural contexts). The best canvas for cosmology is a sphere, such as the sky, containing three equators and three sets of polar axles (thus six polar points); and random dots to mark space; and moving luminaries to calibrate time. Our inherent compulsion for seeing wholes among potential parts, or gestalt, invite us to imprint species, functions, myths, rituals and conceptual correspondences on the sky, as it does in art, myth, ritual, and buildings.
Most of the 28-odd near-ecliptic constellations (in and next to the zodiac), do not have their eyes on a grid of opposites centred at any pole, as they do in art and architecture. The sky is therefore not a stoneprint, but a good canvas for natural and cultural categories, such as species, characters and concepts. Constellation figures are strong in typology and in sequence, due to their mythic labels. Their outlines are abstract and highly optional, as archetypes are. Constellations are also strong on cosmology, thanks to the three equators and sets of poles. Instead of an axial grid between characters, cosmology has a strong grid of division lines between characters. Every section is a homogenous field or ‘sign’, enabling movement with precession of the celestial poles, as a kind of moving clock face (as used in astrology). However nature, artworks and buildings remain fixed on the ecliptic grid, while allowing only two limb joints or junctures near the centre to express the approximate precessional Age (usually the Age preceding the work).
The sequence of archetypal concepts in Western constellations is (noting known archetypal attributes in brackets):
7g Galactic Centre; River (water) 8 as Scorpius tail (long tail); Ophiuchus giant (large, strength feat)
9 Healer; Scorpius head with claws (strength feat); Hercules who briefly carried earth (bent forward, pillar)
9c BasketLid; Lupus, Wolf (canid) or Centaurus legs; Serpens
10 Teacher; Libra, figured by Bootes over Virgo; Corona arm (arms in V/W posture, or wheel); Serpens Caput (Head) or snake on staff (staff)
11 Womb; Virgo; star Spica (Wheat) as her womb (womb); under Bootes
11p Galactic Pole; Coma (Hair), L-shaped (limb joint)
12 Heart; Leo retro (feline, inversion); Crater (Grail); Hydra (waterwork)
13 Heart; Leo (feline); star Regulus on his heart (heart); Ursa (Bear) as sword or scythe (weapon)
13c BasketHead; Leo Minor, or Leo forepaws? (attributes not yet isolated)
14 Mixer; Cancer, Y-shaped (sometimes a tree); Ursa Minor between two poles (ingress /egress); Lynx (sometimes a small canine or feline); Hydra head
15 Maker; Gemini (doubled), standing on the galactic gate (churn), holding Ursa’s head (rope); Canis; Canis Minor (canid), mace shape (smiting, sceptre); Lynx and Ursa Minor shared with 14 (bag)
15g Galactic Gate; Gemini foot (path), star Tejat; at Orion’s rear hand or club; at Auriga’s rear foot (path).
The ecliptic pole or axial centre is unmarked as usual in all media. The celestial poles slowly move. The northern celestial pole is currently at Ursa Minor’s hoof (limb joint). The southern celestial south pole is currently on a Dorado (Goldfish) fin (limb joint). Celestial poles cause summer and winter, always 90 degrees ahead of spring and autumn, as they move in tandem.
No culture ever consciously knew the extent of the archetypal structure that enables and sustains cultural expression in all their media, from myth to buildings and constellations. These sets do not arise from one another. They sometimes swop out some features, sustaining the common view that myth illustrates ‘the sky’. Stoneprint demonstrates that there is an invisible common cause to all media.
The abstract chart of archetypes
Natural manifestation seems to start in galactic planes, as it does in the universe. Either table, or both, could manifest in left- or right-handed versions. Space-time and energy-matter are also ‘emergent’. Culture is equally ‘emergent’, since every expression is original, despite its apparently ‘cumulative and developmental’ stylistic context. When crossing the gaps between stable isotopes of matter, particles shed or absorb light of predictable wavelengths. Likewise, visual archetypes transform by shedding and adopting traits, such as postures, functions, tools, or species; predicted by the stoneprint list, its sequence, its frequencies of probability, its spacing as pairs of opposites, and its tri-polar features. Our conscious minds rebel against the implications of quanta, and the thought that constants have internal structure (Connell 2017). Likewise there is no apparent cause for the pervasive structure in cultural media; or for close structural correspondences between media; or for cultural modelling on invisible natural structure. Our conscious mind rebels against its exclusion from what now emerges as a wide range of subconscious behaviour.
Five layers of cultural structure
Every complex artwork, artefact, building site, geoglyph, pyramid field, or city, expresses five inter-related levels of subconscious structure (A to E):
(A) Types. Characters, rooms or buildings, express sixteen types, each with a small set of specific optional attributes. Some works combine eight of the types into four, thus express only twelve. Most characters express only one of their typological attributes in a work. Some attributes appear at known average frequencies. More attributes of each type may be discovered.
(B) Sequence. The types are near the edge of the work, intervened by four borderline types (c), and two polar points (p), and two galactic points (g):
Types 1 /2 and 8/9, or 5a/5b and 12/13 may each be single or double.
The two galactic poles, 4p and 11p (or pG and pGs), are usually on limb joints or junctures.
(C) Axial grid of eyes or focal points, are formed by pairs of opposites (v):
1v8 2v9 3v10 4v11 4p,v11p, 5a,v12 5b,v13 6v14 7v15 (v for versus).
Type 11 has her womb on the grid. Type 12/13 has his heart on the grid.
The four cista (c) borderline types often lack axial opposites. The grid resembles the mill, or ‘many-coloured cover’ of Icelandic myth.
(D) Six polar points are often on limb joints, each at fixed frequencies.
The two galactic poles, 4p and 11p, are near the ‘equator’ of types.
The two ecliptic poles are on the axial centre, appearing as one point, pE.
The two celestial poles, pC and pCs, are near the centre, often on limb joints.
(E) Horizontal or vertical orientation of the work (east or north in buildings), is often parallel to either the celestial or galactic polar axle.
The celestial polar axle indicates the solstice positions of the Age of the culture or the inspiration, usually the Age prior to the work. Ages are named after the spring equinox position (90 degrees before the solstice). Artefacts express either Age Gemini, Taurus1, Taurus2, Aries, Pisces, or a transition between two of these.
Each of the five layers adds meaning, and removes ambiguity; like diction, syntax, tenses, genders and context add meaning in language.
Sixteen archetypes, in sequence
Characters or focal points in every complex artwork, building site or city, containing more than eleven figures, express a minimum of twelve, usually sixteen, sometimes up to 22 archetypes, in the standard sequence. Types are expressed by public features with a mixture of functional, symbolic and historic meanings, notably religious, monumental, commemorative and iconographic features. Railway stations do not seem to form part of the structure. The known optional features of the types, some with known average frequencies, include the four borderline types (c), and the two galactic polar points (p), and the two galactic gates (g).
Type label; features with average frequencies (used in early analyses; to be updated by 2019 data):
15 Maker; rope 30%, order 25%, bag 10%, face 10%, doubled 10%, pool 8%, canine 8%, create, churn, sceptre, mace, rampant,
15g Galactic Gate; gate 20%, river 6%,,,
The axial grid of opposite pairs
There is only one possible way to connect the maximum number of eyes of characters, on an artwork or map, by an axial grid (or two adjacent grids where there are more than about 25 characters, as on several Mexican building sites).
Placing sixteen eyes, doors, spires, statues or tombs on an axial grid, as pairs of opposites, is less difficult than it may seem at first. The artist or architect could place the first four eyes or buildings according to practical considerations of the canvas, or site, ideally in a more or less X shape. The two invisible axes between them may cross anywhere, ideally near the middle of the canvas or site. The fifth character or building could also be almost anywhere, thus –X shaped. Only from the sixth character or building onward, thus –X– shaped, every eye or defining feature has to find an opposite, with the axis between them crossing over the point established by the first two axes. Some works may start with up to eight characters, without any axial opposites; and find their opposites from the ninth character onward.
Sixteen axial points, on eight axes, require precise eye-hand-mind co-ordination, or surveyor-architect co-ordination, in placing characters sixth to sixteenth; a total of eleven feats (or more on complex sites such as Paris). The axial grid also confirms the peripheral sequence. Builders could place a type 1 /2 opposite any type other than 8/9 (twelve possible contradictions), or a type 3 opposite any type other than 10 (fourteen possible contradictions), and so on with types 4-11, 5a-12, 5b-13, 6-14 and 7-15 (another 52 possible contradictions). There are 78 chances for contradiction, against only eight chances to express the standard set of sequential opposites on an axial grid. A shift in the position of two or three eyes, could erase the sequence and the structure, but almost never does so.
A testable definition of stoneprint
The definition of stoneprint is a testable series of conditional or inter-dependent claims about cultural artefacts, offering an over-determined result:
“In any artwork or building site, containing eleven or more characters or focal features in relative proximity;
AT LEAST twelve eyes or focal points are on an axial grid with one focal point;
AND about 60% of the characters express one or more of their known optional typological attributes;
AND some attributes have fixed frequencies in random samples above 100;
AND the characters are in the standard peripheral sequence;
AND axially opposite their usual counterparts;
AND some limb joints or corners (not eyes or foci) are on one of the two implied galactic poles, or on one of the two implied celestial poles;
AND the celestial axle is on the implied solstice axis of the precessional Age or Age transition, of the relevant culture, usually prior to the work.
One of the polar axles may be parallel to the ground-line or vertical of the artwork, or cardinal direction of the site.
The implied spring point, a quarter of the cycle before the relative summer solstice, may be marked by a feature linked to sacrifice or rejuvenation.
The conscious theme of the work may amplify one of the character types.”
The analysis test formula of ,,,,,[see later posts],,,, results in an average of 60%, with a sigma curve of 30%; the lower average at 50%; the higher average at 80%. Any score below 40% indicates analysis failure. Structuralist failure is less than 1% on average. Any score over 80% indicates cultural or conceptual bias to recognise attributes and themes that are not categorically visible, or repeated revisions of artefacts, such as cities.
The cumulative definition of stoneprint is statistically impossible to attribute to learning or conscious design. Our subconscious eye-hand-mind co-ordination is therefore structured, compulsive, but subconscious. Individual and social behaviour is more inspired, detailed, and abstract, than any craft or science had described.
Axial grids are not Morley’s or Napoleon’s angles
Axial grids are not inherent in any collection of about twelve to twenty items. Morley’s miracle (1899) applies only to the equilateral shape of an inner triangle, formed by the intersections of lines that trisect the corners of any irregular triangle into three equal parts. In axial grids, all adjacent angles are unequal.
Napoleon’s theorem applies only to some predictable properties of equilateral triangles, based on the edges of a triangle. Axial grids are not based on lines of equal length.
No property of axes, or eyes, or building focal points, requires pairs of eyes to be on any kind of grid.
Average leeway for each character reduces by half with every pair added (from about 180 degrees, down to about 22 degrees). Yet even at the least leeway, a change as small as one degree in the angular position of a focal point in a city, could leave two characters unaccounted for. The average chance for non-alignment is about 20:1.
Two galactic points, and six polar points
The two implied galactic gates, or cross-points of the galactic equator over the ecliptic, are listed among the types, since they are the primary ‘border’ points. They are listed in italic letters, to distinguish them from the types:
7g Galactic Centre; Vortex, or water
15g Gate; Path, or net, or grid, or churn group.
The two implied galactic poles are also listed among the types, since they are near the equator of types, and also act as border points. They are also listed in italic letters, to distinguish them from the types:
11p Galactic Pole; 81% marked, 68% limb-joint,
4p Galactic S.Pole; 65% marked, 50% limb-joint, [see later data]
The galactic south pole, when expressed, usually appears inside the ‘equator’ of types, indicating that our subconscious cosmology is like a transparent sphere, or ‘beach ball’, with the lower hemisphere under the top half (see images in the Astronomical section).
Celestial polar markers are near the ecliptic pole (axial centre), also both inside the structure, confirmed by frequencies of limb joints here. In analysis texts, the two celestial poles are listed last:
pC Celestial Pole, on the ‘summer’ axis; 60% marked, 50% limb-joint,
pCs Celestial South Pole, on the ‘winter’ axis; 55% marked, 37% limb-joint,
Studies of the visual effect named Subjective Visual Vertical, found that orientation of the head relative to gravity is constantly signalled from the otolith organs, above all by the utricles, to the central nervous system. Any linear acceleration displaces the otoconial mass, and thus shears the embedded sensory hair bundles against the otolith maculae. This results in a potential change in the sensory cell and in the afferent discharge rate of the cell. Thus a viewer could accurately estimate the Subjective Visual Vertical, unless if suffering from utricle dysfunction.
The polar time-frame
The position of the two celestial poles move with precession, and so do their markers in art and architecture (and probably in myth and ritual, however a categorical test of subconscious structure in texts has yet to be found).
For example, a few recent artworks and building sites have polar markers near the Taurus-Scorpius axis, thus summer; implying spring and the time-frame as Age Pisces-Aquarius, usually confirmed by a spring marker between Pisces and Aquarius (see Pablo Amaringo’s art in Mindprint).
In Age Pisces artworks or buildings, from about BC 80 to AD 2016, astronomical celestial polar markers were on or near the Gemini-Sagittarius solstice axis. However most works made in Age Pisces, express the configuration of the prior Age Pisces-Aries, or of Age Aries, with celestial poles on or near the Cancer-Capricornus solstice axis. Likewise, most works made in Age Aries, express the prior Age Taurus, with their celestial polar markers on the Leo-Aquarius solstice axis.
Most works made in Age Taurus, (which are rare due to decay and renovation), express the prior Age Gemini-Taurus, with their celestial polar markers on or near the Virgo-Pisces solstice axis.
Some Ice Age cave art, and some Gobekli Tepe kiva-type pillared houses, express an Age Gemini polar configuration (see the Ice Age chapter. See a discussion of precession and astronomical Ages, in the Astrology section below).
Poles and limb joints are angles
In art, some of the five polar points are on limb joints, such as a hip (or rump in animals), shoulder, knee, elbow, hand, foot, or jaw. Characters and postures essentially consist of limb joints, thus of angles. Artists habitually use limb joint angles to redirect the wandering eyes of viewers back to the conscious focal points of a design, but are not aware of the subconscious structural roles of some specific joints. The ‘galactic‘ equators in art and buildings lie along two interlinked ovals, sometimes partly along a row of joints, plants, ropes or paths. Some illustrations in this book mark these ovals by large curves, with the northern and southern halves both extended into two wholes. Their intersection appears to form a vesica piscis, or ‘fish’ section. Inspiration may arise from or via type 7g Galactic Centre.
In buildings, the polar points are on corners, T-junctions, or posts. This variation makes the polar points in architecture more uncertain than in art. ‘Joints’ abound in the built environment, as they do in art (thirteen limb joints per person or animal), yet there is often something notable about the ‘polar joints’ in art and in building sites or cities.
Natural maps in our limbs and works
Many versions of structural expression in nature and culture are in front of our eyes. Some natural and cultural types are synonymous, such as a heart and womb being directly pictured in art as a prominent chest and a womb. We build many of the elements of archetypal structure into architecture, in more or less abstract form in myth and ritual.
The sequence of archetypes in our left palm is (noting archetypal features in brackets):
1 Builder; Senses
2 Builder; Throat
2c Basket; Hands and forearms
3 Queen; Left brain arteries
4 King; Left eye
4p Galactic South Pole; Jaw (limb joint)
5a Priest; Right eye (varicoloured, hyperactive)
5b Priest; Left leg (large)
5c BasketTail; Feet
6 Exile; Right leg
7 Child; Skin (bag); and liver (bag)
7g Galactic Centre; Windpipe (bag); and on the ‘horizontal’ plane (juncture)
8 Healer; Kidney
9 Healer; Gall
9c BasketLid; Pancreas
10 Teacher; Appendix
11 Womb; Womb (womb)
11p Galactic Pole; Kidney
12 Heart; Bladder (water-work)
13 Heart; Heart (heart)
13c BasketHead; Chest?
14 Mixer; Left lung, near the centre (ingress)
15 Maker; Liver; and Lymph (rope?)
15g Gate; Left shoulder (limb-joint).
The ecliptic pole or axial centre is on the solar plexus (juncture). The celestial pole is on a heart muscle. The celestial south pole is on the throat. The horizontal plane places midsummer in Gemini-Taurus, thus spring and the time-frame in Age Pisces-Aquarius, our current Age. However time-frames may apply only to cultural expressions, and not to natural works. Priest (Aquarian) types on two of the fingers, seem to confirm the orientation of the stoneprint in our iris (below), where the Priest types are nearest one another, flanking the nose. This orientation is also confirmed by the stoneprint (or rather boneprint) in our mouths (see below).
Eyes are windows to organs and structure
The sequence and relative spacing of iris connections to other body organs offer a physical map to the looped arrangement of our vital organs and functions. The natural typology in our left iris is (noting archetypal attributes):
15g Gate; Equilibrium centre (juncture) or medulla.
The ecliptic pole or axial centre is in the pupil, but offset to the lower inner side, towards the body centre. The celestial poles may be on the horizontal plane, on the heart-throat axis, placing midsummer in Leo, thus spring and the archetypal human time-frame in Age Taurus, confirmed by the top central position of Taurus. However time-frames may apply only to cultural artefacts, not to natural expressions, where slow mutations may be inherent and thus timeless.
Our ‘boneprint’ in dental reflexology
Teeth, the only semi-exposed bone, are our most instinctive analogy for stone pillars or walls in a cave, hut, broch, kiva or village. A set of teeth is symmetrical on two planes, thus split into mirrored quarters, and used as two hemispheres.
Teeth are linked in myth to the calendar, and to monsters, like the dragon teeth that Cadmus sowed to sprout soldiers. The calendric analogy is to the growing moon, and to changes in the number of our teeth from temporary juvenile 10+10 =20 (as in the unbroken 20-day ‘month’ cycle in the Mayan calendar), to the adult 16+16 =32 (decanal hours, and approximate days in a solar month). The average age when our teeth erupt follow a ragged, bottom-top (B/T) sequence, with some skips or jumps, in these months; 8B, 9T, 11T, 13B, 16B, 16T, 19T, 20B, 27T, 29B. The average age when teeth shed and replace, also follows an interrupted sequence, in years 6.5, 7.5; 10, 10.5, 11. Eruption and replacement make a total of fifteen events, resulting in 16 teeth on each jaw. Our teeth also chart our organs, but in a more compact, replicated, and redundant form. Teeth are also parts of a limb joint, and mimic oblique equators.
Cities resemble teeth
Most buildings, towns and cities are divided into quarters, like teeth are. Each quarter is usually a functional unit. Our buildings and cities are clusters of mostly cuboid materials in interlocking planes, with their third dimension in the spacing between flat planes, allowing rooms, doors, streets, squares, and thus functionality. Likewise, molecules could be modelled as clusters, or a collection of energy tracks, where space is as functional as material. Electron ‘traffic’ in the outer orbital determines chemical reactivity, thus expressing their characters and enabling their compounds. Cells are usually modelled as spheres, but actually resemble hexagonal discs, as in mud, DNA bases, and collagen (Robert Temple 2003). Analogies, or inter-media translations, reveal some aspects of invisible potentiality, or structure itself. We have traced and used that structure in nature, using physics (expressed in quanta and laws), chemistry and biology. But we have been slow to codify the structure of culture, despite the efforts of structuralists such as Plato in logic, JG Frazer in myth, Jacobsen and Chomsky in language, Levi-Strauss in social behaviour, Freud and Jung in motivations, and Gombrich in art analysis. Stoneprint extends the periodic table of culture from art, to buildings and nature. It allows the study of structure itself, thus of archetype, which enables elements to manifest and co-exist in the range of natural expressions that we are intimate parts of, and wherein we express some minor wonders of the world, including wondrous buildings and cities.
Our buildings, temple complexes and cities could be read as ‘abstract’ two-dimensional maps of archetype, thus more simplistic than our intricate three-dimensional bodies. But maps are deceptively simple. Building sites express an interrupted symmetry that could be charted by a T-shape in a circle, like the ancient T-O or ((+)) world map convention. Our teeth form such a map. Jaws express cosmology in terms of space, and in practical functions of digestion they perform. Two half-equators of teeth form digitally calibrated ecliptic and celestial arcs, of variable obliquity to one another, much like the celestial rotation of about 23.4 degrees (formerly larger). Opened wider, our dental plates resemble the galactic obliquity of about 61 degrees.
The most direct bridge for reconciling or ‘tacking’ our teethprint with our eyeprint, handprint, earprint, mindprint and stoneprint, is our body map. There is some variation in reflexology allocations of body parts to teeth, due to near complete replication in every quarter. Yet some differences between the four quarters of our teeth, reveal the sequence of dominant reflexology points. The same applies to buildings and cities. Every quarter, or at least two halves, each have a gate, temple, well, and the rest of the usual features; yet there are clues to which teeth most directly link to the organs ascribed to them.
We should first attempt to find consensus between rival teeth reflexology charts; then between eye, hand, ear, and teeth reflexology.
Potential consensus between the adult dental reflexology charts of Kliegels, Pugh, Natural Matters, and Furian, invites allocation of stoneprint types, here clockwise to the observer, starting from the bottom incisors:
1 RT07 Incisor2+1; Kidney, Genitals; Mouth, Ears
2 LT09 Incisor1+2; Kidney; Genitals; Mouth, Ears
2c LT11 Canine; Liver; Eyes; Hips, Knees
3 LT12 +13 Premolar1+2; Intestine +Colon
4 LT14 Molar1; Spleen, Thyroid; Feet
4p LT15 Molar1; Stomach, Spleen
5a LT16 Molar3; Small Intestint, Nerves Central, Brain, Heart; Knee
5b LB17 Molar3; Small Intestine; Nerves Peripheral, Brain, Heart
5c LB18+19 Molar2+1; ?
6 LB20+21 Premolar2+1; Spleen, Stomach; Mouth
7 LB22 Canine; Liver
7g LB23 Incisor2; Bladder?
8 LB23 Incisor2+1; Bladder, Genitals
9 LB24 Incisor1+2; Bladder, Genitals
9c RB27 Canine; Liver, Genitals?, Gall
10 RB28+29 Premolar1+2; Pancreas, Liver, Stomach
11 RB30 Molar1; Valve? Veins?
11p Galactic Pole; RB31 Molar2; ?
12 RB32 Molar3; Heart, Small Intestine, Nerves Peripheral; Shoulder
13 RT01 Molar3; Heart, Small Intestine; Shoulder
13c RT02+03 Molar2+1; Pancreas, Stomach, Thyroid
14 RT04 Pemolar2+1; Lung, Intestine
15 RT06 Canine; Liver, Gall; Eyes.
Our last three teeth eruptions indicate part of a natural maturity cycle:
Type 7 Child and its opposite 15 Maker, erupt late, both doubled
Type 3 Queen and its opposite 10 Teacher erupt later, both doubled
Types 5a and 5b Priest, and their opposites 12 and 13 Heart, erupt last. The ‘wisdom’ teeth are analogous to the heart.
Cities express more half-types
Hard media, such as stone, wood and mortar, more often express the four Cista (Basket) borderline types, than soft media such as art, myth and ritual do. Some decanal figures in Egyptian calendric art also include borderline types.
Characters are patient
The regular sixteen character types are harder to spot on plans and maps than in art, where living creatures parade with identifiable names, postures, items, and functions. Types in buildings manifest more slowly than in art, usually from collaboration, and from compromises between functions, design, engineering, budget and other ‘teething’ problems. Some attributes could take many years to manifest, like cathedrals. Several layers of remodelling may obscure one another. Yet the result is always predictably structured.
Two body maps in our ears
Inner ear lobe reflexes offer yet another body and cosmology model for mapping attributes in peripheral sequence:
2c endocrine gland
3 adrenal gland
4p Galactic South Pole on lower jaw (limb joint)
5 mouth (hyperactive)
8 large intestine
13 heart (heart)
14 lung?; near the centre (ingress /egress)
15 brain stem (with a rope)
15g Gate at upper jaw.
The ecliptic pole or axial centre is at the esophagus (windpipe). If the celestial poles were on the horizontal plane, as in cultural media, they place our inner ear lobe’s summer in Leo, thus its spring and temporal framework in Age Taurus. However time-frames probably do not apply to organisms.
The outer ear lobe reflexology chart has yet another reflexology map of our internal organs (Cocoandcowe). The outer ear lobe reflexes also offer astoneprint model of limbs, instead of organs (in peripheral sequence):
1 lower jaw
2 left eye
2c forehead or inner ‘eye’
3 right eye
4 inner ears and nose
4p Galactic South Pole on lumbar or sacral spine
5b ankle and knee
6 toes, far from the centre (ingress /egress)
9 little finger
10 hand (staff)
11 abdomen (womb)
11p Galactic Pole on elbow (limb joint)
12 chest (heart)
15 shoulder (smiting)
15g Gate; Neck.
The ecliptic pole or axial centre is on the thoracic spine. The celestial pole is on the occiput. The celestial south pole is on the solar plexus, or nerves joint (limb joint). The horizontal plane confirms our ear lobe summer in Virgo-Leo, thus spring and the temporal framework in Age Gemini-Taurus, at the Gate. Time-frames probably apply only to cultural expressions, not to nature.
Reflexes include our body organs sequence
Organ reflex sequences in our palms, eyes, teeth and ears, reveal a doubled typology sequence in our bodies, as infinity curves or Moebus rings. DNA studies indicate that our bodies were formed by a combination of four primitive worms.
A ‘reality’ game on a Bulgarian liver pegboard
Divination tablets and game boards trade in stock questions and answers, for stock situations. A peg-board from Karazhalia village in Bulgaria, named Karanovo tablet, probably used markers for divination or ‘reality’ games. Tracing out the invisible axial grid reveals that one hole is misplaced. Typological identification reveals the reason: the hole expresses the eye of type 11 Womb, but the grid line is on her ‘womb’ as usual. The format resembles clay liver map tablets used in oracle systems since Sumerian times, up to the Roman era. Divination bridges the apparent contradictions between universal and local, general and specific, simple and complex, natural and cultural. The physical functions of culture include legitimising exploitation. The abstract functions include expressing and attempting to resolve apparent contradictions between our conscious and subconscious minds (Leach 1970, citing Levi-Strauss 1981).
Piacenza bronze liver OUTER edge gods (names after Morandi. Stoneprint labels and axial grid by ED Furter).
Piacenza bronze liver INNER fields gods (names after Morandi. Stoneprint labels and axial grids by ED Furter).
Two circles of gods on a liver model
Sixteen sections divide the outer rim of the Etruscan Piacenza bronze liver divination chart, and 22 fields divide the interior, which includes some polar features. These two axial grids are secure, but the identities remain uncertain, probably scrambled by political customisation. However the sets of attributes, and thus divination outcomes, were probably less affected. Pliny and Cicero understood both sets as ‘astrological houses of gods’, thus a cosmology, but not necessarily of constellations. Several planets are named, thus there are as many ‘hands as ‘hours’. God names on the Piacenza liver were adopted from three cultures, revealing how Etruscan diviners subconsciously maintained universal structure by selective mixing and matching. The Etruscan League in its collective subconscious carved out a stylistic multi-cultural identity, as a trade mediator. The two cycles of gods here (as in Etruscan art), are from three different sets of gods. Ironically, the subconscious sequence of characters in Piacenza city, mostly of saints; and among its gates, mostly of family names, are much more distinctive than the sequence of consciously re-worked and rationalised planetary entities on the liver model, which include door or gate gods. Conscious interference does not scramble conscious artworks or building sites, but it could scramble a palm-sized divination device and a religious training school subject to political uses.
Piacenza city, a stoneprint of saints and bastions
Piacenza lies just south of the Po River. A bronze liver divination model was found about 15 miles from the city. The sequence of archetypes in the city is:
1 St Vincenzo. OFF THE GRID, without an apparent opposite at 8
2 St Antonio
2c St Arostino?; Municipal Theatre (off the grid, as usual)
3 Filodrome Theatre annex (long or bent neck)
4 ? near the theatre
5a St Carmel
5b St John (camel-skin with tailcoat head); and Castle (large)
6 St Sepoler Hospital, far out (ingress /egress); and St?; and St? (double-headed), near the centre (ingress /egress)
7 St Sepoler; and St Mad di Campagna
9 St ?
9c Civic Museum (often off the grid)
10 St Bufenia
11 St Sisto
13 Palace Farnese (sometimes royal)
14 St Savino, far out; and St Francis, nearby (both ingress /egress)
15 St ? dome.
The celestial pole is near Palace Gotico Elonisi, east from the axial centre, placing midsummer in Leo-Cancer, thus spring and the inspiration in Age Taurus-Aries, about BC 1500, at the perceived formation of Etruscan culture.
The sequence of archetypes among Piacenza city gates is:
2 south-east bastion
2c half-bastion on the Vauxhall wall
3 south bastion
4 military hospital outside the wall, rectangular
5b castle south bastion (large)
5c castle’s north-west bastion
6 gate Antonia, far out (ingress /egress)
7 west-north-west bastion
7g Galactic Centre; Outer bastion NW, on the river (water)
9 bastion Borghetto, with a large belvedere (bent)
9c Gate St Sisto
10 north bastion
11 gate Podesta
11p Galactic Pole; Podesta Road /10 June Road (limb joint)
13 north-east bastion with a belvedere wall (heart)
14 half-bastion (13c?) at the station
15 east bastion, near St Morricela?
15g Gate; Gate St Luzzaro.
The east-west latitude places polar and solstice markers in Cancer-Capricornus, thus spring in Age Aries, contemporary with Etruscan culture. All cities express the standard five subconscious layers of stoneprint. Piacenza does so twice, as the liver map does, not due to any special properties of sheep livers, or the Etruscan pantheon, or local architecture.
Paris stoneprint tour point by point
The French capital’s historic and spiritual womb is in Notre Dame de Paris cathedral, on City Island in the Seine. Its military and cultural heart is adjacent, in the Louvre on the interior bank. All its notable public, monumental, memorial and symbolic buildings, including the main entrance to its underworld of catacombs in stone quarries, are on its stoneprint, which was more or less fixed in the Middle Ages (see a map of earlier Roman Paris below). Railway stations do not seem to form part of the stoneprint structure in the cities tested up to late 2017. Visitors could start a typological tour at any point, ideally exploring features on each axis in turn, either in number sequence, or in the opposite, seasonal direction. The sequence of archetypes in the Paris stoneprint map is (noting archetypal attributes in brackets):
1 Builder; Eiffel Tower (tower, builder. See Tarot trump 1, Tower. See 1 in Rome, and in London)
2 Builder; Large Palace and Small Palace exhibition and museum complex (cluster). Four statue groups on the facade have twisted postures (twisting). And Concorde Square, with the Luxor obelisk (tower). Former guillotine site.
2c Basket; Triumphal Arch for the Austerlitz Battle, and Unknown Soldier’s tomb (mystery); Champs Elysees on the solar angle of a revolution date (secret or revelation. Astronomy observation points are never on the subconscious grid, see Stonehenge, and Magdalenburg). And Place Vendome with Napoleon’s spiralled column (bent neck) also for the Austerlitz Battle. And Magdalene church; she caught Christ’s blood in a cup (container), has long body hair (Medusa monster), placed a basket (container) of eggs (moons, of adjacent 3) below the cross, lived in a cave (of adjacent 2); and the crypt (cave) for weekday masses; Ten Commandments (revelation) on her doors. Former Napoleonic Army monument, formerly thrice re-planned, former synagogue. Furter out lies La Defence, including a cubic arch (typical of 2) and the Phare tower resembling a woven grain store basket (Basket, weave).
3 Queen; St Augustine church; and statue of Joan of Arc (see Tarot trump 3, Empress)
4 King; Opera Garnier, two Pegasus statues (decan Pegasus). The ceiling painting by Marc Chagall expresses a visual stoneprint. And Masonic lodge Grand Orient.
4 King B; Trinity church; and Masonic Grand Lodge.
5a Priest; Montmartre cemetery (of its opposite 12/13, death)
5b Priest; Basilica Sacred Heart (of its opposite 12/13), large 475m sq mosaic (varicoloured) of Christ in Glory (ascension; see Tarot trump 21, World, as a master ascended in microcosmic halo), large bell (large), equestrian statues (5 or 4 are sometimes equid). And Notre Dame de Clignacourt.
6 Exile; Zenith pop arena (music is typical of Pan, the god of type 6. His statue is on the adjacent 7 axis), far from the centre (egress), between science and music buildings (double-headed), on Canal Ourcq, in Villette Park (tree).
5c BasketTail; Ganesha, elephant temple on Rue Pajol.
7 Child; Buttes-Chaumont outcrop (more typical of 8/9). Former execution site, abattoir, dump, sewage basin, now clean. Pan’s statue belongs in Villette Park (see 6). Pierro De Cosimo’s painting of satyrs harvesting honey between a city and a butte (Mindprint p52-53) may be set at Solutre butt, where Stone Age hunters stampeded horses, but the scene of nature-culture interface is also expressed in this park.
7g Galactic Centre; Buttes-Chaumont park cavern springs, waterfall, pool (water).
8 Healer; Buttes-Chaumont Park Bolivar gate and Brigadier pavilion (pillars).
9 Healer; Belleville Park, hill with health springs (healers), formerly religious communities. Former Mardi Gras site on Fat Tuesday in February, before the fast.
9c BasketLid; Pere Lachaise cemetery of the famous, and execution wall. And former Templar Temple, south of Republic Square; and St Martin; and St Nicholas.
10 Teacher; Bastille Square; Liberty genie of the 1830 three-day revolution, arms in W-posture, holding a wreath (decan Corona), on a ball (wheel), with a torch (more typical of 9). Former fountain of Isis with arms in overlapping VV-posture, below her breasts, spouting water. And Square Vosges /National /Royal jousting track, where Henry2 died from a lance splint in his eye (as Nostradamus may have predicted) while celebrating a peace treaty with Spain (diplomacy). Henry4 rebuilt the track for mounted games and processions, named carousels (see an antelope carousel in the Egyptian Hierakonpolis tomb 100 mural, in Mindprint p220-221, and in a USA rock art work, in Expression 10). Prototype of townhouse squares. Former statue of Louis14 holding a staff, crowned (decan Corona) by Fame (his current statue is on a horse). Napoleon planned a replica of Egypt’s Dendera temple of Hathor, Mother of Horus (decan Bootes is the adult Horus) for a general killed in Egypt. And Hotel Force prison. And Victories Square, winged Victory with arms up, holding two wreaths (decan Corona, Crown). To the south is the remaining tower of St Jaques, who remains on top holding a staff.
11 Womb; Notre Dame de Paris, of Mary (womb). Its facades include several stoneprints (Mindprint p195). Its floor axis lies 25 degrees south-east, to sunrise on two feast days, and perhaps the heliacal rising of Sirius (later paralleled in the Louvre fort and Champs Elysees). Site of former temples on City island (womb). And Salpetiere (Salt) hospital, former gunpowder factory, insane hospital, and prison for 300 prostitutes (womb).
11 Womb B; Roman stadium, concentric (womb); and St Etienne du Mont, of Mary (womb), later of John, with relics of St Genevieve (Kin-wife, Guinevere, womb), patron of Paris, god-daughter of Lutetia (City of Light), carried in procession to Notre Dame (see 11) to cure rye fungus ergotism (decan Spica, Wheat ear). And first Gaul settlement (womb). And Palace of Justice (see Tarot trump 11).
11p Galactic Pole; City Island’s north bridge (limb joint).
12 Heart; Paris Pantheon, round dome on a hill (heart), formerly St Genevieve (see 11B). And French College. And St Michael Square, archangel over a devil or Death inverted (inversion), over a leonine dragon (feline). A City Island western tip, oldest bridge in Paris; statue of playboy king Henry4 on a horse (equid).
12 Heart B; Paris meridian (north-south ‘zero’ line) or ‘heart’, set by the observatory just north-east of Denfer Square. It does not run over the subconscious centre of the city, nor of the subconscious centre of the gates (conscious survey features never do, see Stonehenge). The first meridian monument, with a hole at the top (see Gobekli) was moved south to Montsouris park, or Mont Ysore, after a legendary defeated giant. Several nearby features were named ‘Ysore’s Tomb’ (death), near the Roman cemetery. The railway was formerly inside the fortifications (platform). Former Revolution statue (weapon, death), melted by German occupiers, replaced by Peace Armed (weapon) moved from d’Anvers Square. Five statues: A Lion’s Death (feline, Death, here three men carrying a dead lion, by Edmond Desca, 1929); Desert Drama, of lion versus python (decans Leo over Hydra, feline) with dead cubs (death); Mine Accident (underground, death); Col Flatters and company massacred by Tuaregs in Algeria (weapon, death); Gen Jose de San Martin, liberator of southern South America (weapon). Lake and cascade (water works).
13 Heart; Denfer Rochereau Square, nicknamed ‘Hell’ after some catacombs caved in; a military lion statue (feline. See lion-headed underworld foundation pegs under Gobekli, and the Babylonian chapter). Near the catacombs main entrance (Death). And Luxembourg gardens, Liberty statue, model for the gift to New York (Delacroix, whose own statue is also here, painted Liberty to expresses the heart and womb, see Mindprint p219); several lion statues (feline), and Diana with a bow (weapon). And St Sulpice, with an obelisk for timekeeping (its ‘meridian’ is a few hundred metres west of the Paris meridian); fountain with four lions (feline). And St Germaine des Pres abbey, former Roman temple site. And the Louvre (Window) southern bastion at the river (water works), a former fort (weapon, bastion); and Louvre interior, heart of Paris and France (heart). And Royal Palace (feline).
13 Heart B; Louvre glass pyramid skylight, upward and inverted (inversion) in the roof platform (see 12/13 in Rome, and several Mexican pyramid fields). Three former plans had proposed a pyramid here. Axes 11 and 12/13 impose their themes of birth, death, weapons and tunnels on many cities, on Paris in particular.
13c BasketHead; Miraculous Conception Medal chapel in Bac Street, where St Vincent’s heart (adjacent type 13) and Mary appeared to St Zoe (Life). or Catherine Laboure, buried here. The medal reverse has a +cross with a baseline interwoven (the cistas are often woven) in the top of a letter M, over two flaming hearts, one in a crown of thorns, one pierced by a sword (see cross and lion under Axum).
14 Mixer; Unesco office, Y-shaped (a rare attribute of 14, see Narmer’s chisel); and Military School. And former Tuileries palace, now a statue of a lion mauling a crocodile (decan Hydra). And Invalides (Veterans) chapel dome, tomb of Napoleon and others, statue of Napoleon as summer sun (polar) between two women holding palm branches (calendar or Time devices in Egypt, as of Seshat; see Tarot trump 14, Temperance, Angel of Time).
15 Maker; National Assembly or Parliament (sceptre or mace)
15g Gate; Champ de Mars (path or crossing, as a ’limb joint’).
Many city maps are slightly inaccurate due to exaggerating the width of streets and public squares. Some features of types 6, 7, 8 and 9 are not marked on the map. Further testing may reveal an inner periphery of these types, thus two expressions on the same axis, as found at types 10, 11, 12 and 13.
The ecliptic pole or axial centre is west of the old National Library. Several celestial polar markers are possible. The east-west cardinal direction may place summer in Taurus, thus spring and the cultural time-frame in Age Aquarius, confirmed by the unusual top central position of types 5 Priest. Prophetic time-frames are rare, usually in works that seek to perpetuate a culture, or human culture. The Louvre and the Museum of Man are among several sustained efforts to practice, curate and study culture in this perpetually renovated city.
The general themes in the Paris gates imprint are types 12/13 Heart and 11 Womb (see 11, 11B, 12, 12B, 13 above), typical of interior spaces, protection, nurture, gestation, as well as defence, death and transformation. The two themes combined express what many capitals strive to be: protected yet open, nurturing yet enterprising. Some feminine features are on the Leo axes (such as the Roman Isis site at St Germaine; and statues of famous women in Luxembourg park), while some Heart features are on the 11 Womb axes (such as the lions statue group in the Botanical garden; however type 11 has some minor felid features). Roman Paris had its forum and temples in the Sorbonne area, between axes 12/13, and a Jupiter temple on the Notre Dame site; thus a smaller stoneprint, probably also dominated by types 11 and 12/13.
All five layers of structural expression are subconscious to artists, architects, builders and members of any culture.
See the larger stoneprint formed by the 45 gates of Paris below. Its axial centre is in a different place, as in the two grids of Rome, Brescia, and other walled cities.
Photo guide to the Paris stoneprint
Paris type 2 Builder; Concorde Place obelisk. And Petit Palace Seasons and Elements (twisting); and Louvre museum Medusa mask (decan Medusa).
Paris type 3 Queen; Joan of Arc (a kind of empress) at St Augustine. Other types 3 Aries include Napoleon column with spiral (bent neck).
Paris types 2c, 2c, 4, 5, 6, 6
Paris types 2c Cista; St Magdalene’s cruet (container); Commandments doors (revelation). Type 4 King; Garnier opera Apollo (Sun); (and Pegasus, of decan Pegasus).
Type 5b Priest; Sacred Heart’s Christ in Majesty (World, or Transformed Soul).
Type 6 Exile; Zenith music (Pan) hall, in a park (Pan), logo of double cross (double-headed); and Pan (who is misplaced in the adjacent Buttes Chaumont park).
Paris types 8 Healer; Buttes Chaumont park outcrop (pillars) and springs (healing); Statue of Adamastor or Green Man (with a pillar, bent forward, strength feat). Type 10 Teacher; Bastille Square Liberty (arms up) with crown (decan Corona); Liberty pillar; former Isis statue (arms W-posture, and minister with arms up); and Vosges square former carousel (wheel).
Paris types 11 Womb; Notre Dame (womb) cathedral; with many reliefs and statues of Mary (womb). Salpetiere gunpowder factory, asylum, and prison for prostitutes (womb). Types 11 Womb B; Roman arena; St Genevieve (Kin-Wife, womb); Justice Palace with statues of virtues (Justice, see Tarot trump 11, Justice).
Paris types 12 heart; Masks of Death (death) on island bridge bastions (bastion); Michael Square, St Michael on a devil inverted, over griffin lion (felid); Pantheon (dome).
Paris types 13 Heart; Louvre pyramid on a platform (platform), paired with an inverted pyramid (inversion); Luxembourg garden lion (felid) and Diana hunting (weapon);
Paris types 13 Heart; Luxembourg garden lion (felid); Denfer Rocehreau square lion (felid) over catacombs (platform, death); Montsouris park Dead Lion (death, felid); Lion versus Python (felid, death); Armed Peace (weapon); Meridian marker (heart); St Sulpice fountain lions (felid).
Paris type 13c BasketHead; Miraculous Conception Medal (weave).
Paris types 14 Mixer; Unesco building (Y-shape); Tuileries lion versus crocodile (decan Leo Minor over decan Hydra); former Hercules versus Hydra (decan Hydra); Invalides veterans home, Napoleon as sun (polar) with two Time angels (Temperance).
Paris types 15 Maker: National Assembly (sceptre, order, creation), fronted by Law (order, creation) with the hand of justice (smiting) sceptre (sceptre); Facade of virtues, including Strength with a club (sceptre, smiting), a throne with armrests of thunderbolts (sceptres, creation), and a wand of order (sceptre); Heritage Colonnade including a sculptor chiselling (smiting) a large face (face), and Prometheus as creator (creation) with a small club (sceptre).
The Paris coat of arms includes a trade ship, subconsciously expressing type 15 Maker decan Argo, in the southern or underworld galactic river; framed by ropes (rope), between two women (doubled), in drapes (decan Argo Vela, Sail). The Seine enters Paris at gate 11 Womb, and exits at gate 15g Gate.
The 45 gates of Paris form another, larger stoneprint
In its last wall, Paris has about 45 tax gates, of which 35 are on an axial grid. The usual exceptions at types 12/13 Heart and 11 Womb, which are always on different features (typically bastions, platforms, gardens or waterways), explain four of the exceptions in the southern wall. Where more than sixteen types are expressed in one ragged oval (here unusually regular), the four double types are tripled or quadrupled; and single types are doubled (here some are tripled). The half-types are all expressed, as usual on complex building sites: 2c Basket on Gate Maillot, 5c BasketTail on Ourcq canal, 9c BasketLid on District Twelve gardens, and 13c BasketHead on Gate Plaine). However the c-types are not always on the grid, thus the grid points may be additional types instead. Six gates are unaccountably off the grid (notably type 9 Healer, two types 8 Healer, and one of the types 7 Child, all in the eastern wall). One of the four types 15 Maker is on the ‘annexed’ sports park, instead of a gate. Former gates in the older, smaller city, expressed a simpler outer stoneprint, however medieval maps are usually inaccurate.
Polar markers within the gates, have the same orientation as polar markers within the cycle of major buildings. Type 11p Galactic Pole is on Italy Square. Type 4p Galactic South Pole is on Montmartre cemetery. The ecliptic pole or axial centre is on City Island (limb joint), south of the Palace of Justice. Several celestial markers are possible. The current celestial south pole may be on the Hotel Cieu bridge (limb-joint), placing summer in Scorpius, thus spring and the cultural time-frame of the walls in Age Taurus1, before the work as usual (the time-frame of the buildings inside the current city are later, even anticipating the future).
The general theme among the gates could be type 11 Womb, as it is in the city itself. See concentric stoneprints also in the Piacenza liver, Piacenza city, Rome, and elsewhere. All five layers of structural expression are subconscious to artists, architects, builders and members of any culture.
How to find the subconscious structure in a site plan
To find the sequence of archetypes in an artwork or on a site plan, list the peripheral elements that are near the outer edge, with their apparent features, either clockwise or anti-clockwise. Add potential type numbers after the features, to find potential anchor points for the highest number of correspondences with the standard stoneprint sequence (see the list in the Introduction). Try to complete the sequence by researching the characteristics of buildings and features. If the sequence is not confirmed by about half the characters or buildings, try adding type numbers in the opposite direction, or from different starting points.
Test whether axial opposite pairs confirms the sequence, by drawing an axial grid between their eyes of functional centres, such as altars, or entrances, or centres. Draw two or three lines from each feature, to two or three possible opposites, until the axial centre reveals itself by the crossing of five or more axes at one point; then redraw the grid with only the axes that cross at the same point. Most of the pairs of opposites should express the standard cycle of sixteen types, or at least the basic twelve types, as six pairs of opposites. If there are more than four strong contradictions (types opposite the wrong counterpart, or more than four characters off the grid), search for a better axial centre. Identify the borderline half-types; and the four remaining polar points, usually on limb joints. Use the standard caption format to write a structuralist analysis of the building, complex, city or artwork.
Use the standard analysis scoring formula to determine variation from the expected average of 60%. If the score is below 40%, repeat the analysis on a different map, or with other variants. If the score is above 80%, confirm whether each element accounted for, is categorically visible.
Cut and paste these labels to identify characters and structural points on a map or artwork image. Pairs of opposites are given above/below one another. Some pairs may remain unused (often the Cistas, or 1-8, or 12-5a). Use question marks for extra figures that do not express a type or border or pole:
The same set of labels is used in these and earlier illustrations, but that the format of the labels is now changed by placing the numbers before the mythic name, and replacing constellation mythic names by generic social functions. The format used in illustrations up to December 2016, was ta1, ar3, and so on, which is less intuitive to read. Future illustrations will follow the new format above.
About structuralist anthropology research
In 2016, Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings, and cites, confirmed a new direction in the exploration of our cultural record, of our nature, and of nature. The book takes readers on a journey through all the famous cultural sites of the world, and the intuitive crafts and human sciences, towards integrating the subconscious and conscious paradigms of whom and what we are. The book breaks the bonds that held science and popular culture to fundamental, causal, common-sense explanations of our works, such as ‘development, diffusion, and cultural evolution’. We have always been a super race, with a large capacity for working structural wonders, but with limited self-knowledge. Stoneprint is an indispensable aid to exploring the art, artefacts, tombs and cities of any culture, and opens a new field of enquiry to crafts and human sciences.
Furter, E. 2015 C. Rock art: Where, When, Why, to Whom. Ed. E. Anati. Atelier Etno, Italy
Furter, E. 2015 D. Structural rock art analysis. Association of Southern African Professional Archaeologists (in ASAPA 2017)
Furter, E. 2016 Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities. Four Equators Media, Johannesburg. First edition
Furter, E. 2016A. Abstract signs in art as shorthand for cultural structure. Expression 13, Atelier Etno, Italy [the magazine layout scrambles captions and text, corrected in the book: Meaning of abstract signs]
Furter, E. 2016B. Colonial artists re-style the same characters. Expression 14, Atelier Etno, Italy
Furter, E. 2017. Pregnant is the most consistent typological gender. Expression 15, Atelier Etno, Italy
Furter, E. 2017B. Recurrent characters in art reveal objective meaning. Expression 16, Atelier Etno
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Jung, CG. 1951 Alchemical Interpretation of the fish. Aion, CW 9; 2, 169
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Leach, E. 1970 Claude Levi-Strauss. University of Chicago Press
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Levi-Strauss, Claude. 1969 Raw and the cooked
Levi-Strauss, Claude. 1973 From honey to ashes
Levi-Strauss. Claude. 1981 Naked man
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A vulture and scorpion among the animals carved on Gobekli Tepe pillar D43, attracted several interpretations as a ‘zodiac’. However no coherent star map, observational record, or zodiac sequence emerged. Five different identifications extensively contradict one another. The artwork is not consistent with the interpretations of Stephany (who offers two different options), Burley (supported by Hancock), Collins, or Sweatman and Tsikritsis. Yet there is some consensus that four species on other Gobekli pillars could be seasonal ‘beasts’ or cardinal constellations. As in artworks worldwide, the design on pillar D43 subconsciously expresses the five layers of archetypal structure, that we also imprint in myth, ritual, emblems, building sites, calendars, various sets of 16, 18, 24 or 36 hour decan asterisms (see the Babylonian example below), and constellations.
Characters expressing archetypes always have an axial grid between their eyes, as demonstrated below. Various zodiacs worldwide express some elements of time, symbol, ritual and myth, but cultural media expresses archetypal structure; they do not illustrate the sky. Babylo-Assyrian boundary stones, and the Mul Apin (Starry Plough) list, demonstrate that icons are apparently varied, yet structurally rigorous. Culture is compulsively sustained by the structure embedded in nature, in our perception, and in our subconscious behaviour; not by ‘tradition’.
Iconography offers some conscious access to the structure of perception and expression. No single artwork or cultural set contains all the variants. And no single science could interpret cultural behaviour. Inter-disciplinary study is required to study our subconscious connection to nature, including time and space. Simplistic correspondence theories are inadequate to the role that archaeo astronomy should play in the human sciences.
By Edmond Furter, Author of Mindprint, and of Stoneprint
Comments to any article are welcome in the Comment function below.
STEHANY SEES THE VULTURE AS PEGASUS, OR SAGITTARIUS
Timothy Stephany (2009) was among the first astronomical interpreters of Gobekli Tepe art. On pillar D43 he initially saw (clockwise from top left): bird hut as Perseus; furrowing fox as Cassiopeia; its hut as Cepheus; spider’s hut as Draco head; spider as Hercules; heron as Cygnus; reed wall as galaxy; bird forepart as Lyra; rearing chick as Aquila; scorpion as Aquarius north and Capricornus tail; big bird as Piscis Austrinus; wolf as Aquarius south; snake as Pisces; dot as Lacerta; vulture as Pegasus. He did not picture the celestial equator of about BC 9500, which lay across Pegasus north; nor the three poles, which were aligned at the time. In another proposal, Stephany uses the other half of the galactic equator, and sees the bird, fox, spider and three birds as small asterisms in the galaxy, over vulture as Sagittarius, scorpion as Scorpius, and the rest in the Ara and Pavo area.
On other pillars, Stephany sees a pig as Ursa; a cup-hole above its eye as the then distantly future celestial pole at Polaris (where it is now, 11 000 years later), and ‘misplaced’ to Camelopardalis. But the Giraffe is 20 degrees south of Ursa Minor. And in Gobekli times the pole was at Ursa’s tail.
On pillar A2 he sees the cow as a macro asterism north of Virgo, Libra and Scorpius, its horns in Virgo at the star Spica, its back in Bootes, body in Corona and Hercules, feet in Ophiuchus. The fox he sees as Scorpius Claws, its body over the Ophiuchus feet; crane as Scorpius, its tail over the galactic centre; another fox and crane as Lynx tail over Cancer.
On another pillar he sees five rearing cranes as three stars in Cepheus, and Draco neck star Altais, and Draco’s hip, with a cup-hole as Polaris. But Polaris had no special function in the Gobekli sky. If this artwork were a ‘time capsule’, they could have used more clearly defined asterisms, or a grid.
Gobeklians probably had hour decans (see the Babylonian set below, and three kinds of Egyptian decans in Furter 2016: Stoneprint; and in an article in the anthropology journal Expression edition 13). They may have had a zodiac, probably including some of these animals, but Stephany focuses on the galaxy.
On the central pillars of the houses, Stephany sees the foxes jumping forward from the elbows of the ‘pillar people’, as a macro combination of Leo, Coma, and Virgo, with jaws at star Regulus, to tails at Spica. But Leo is never canid. Virgo may have a dog (see the Assyrian decans below), but the sky version of that canid is Lupus (see type 9c in the archetype table below).
There is no consistent scale, projection, stars, or polar context in Stephany’s scheme. He finds shreds of incidental, undeveloped, ‘un-evolved’ conscious logic. The wild goose chase for correspondences reveals popular and ‘scientific’ archaeo astronomy to be stuck in a narrow fundamentalist, developmental and diffusionist paradigm.
On dating, Stephany goes further back than any other author. On pillar D38 he sees the thin bull-fox as summer in Capricornus; pig as winter in Ursa head and Cancer; birds as autumn in Triangulum, Aries and Pleiades. Thus he implies spring and the Age in Libra-Scorpius, impossibly early.
Rampant lions in house H, Stephany sees as Gemini-Orion combinations, their bodies across the galactic gate. But no culture pictured a felid here, and it is usually a summer beast. Spring is more often two antithetical characters (as of Babylonian Nergal’s small serpopards, and the Mayan hero twins). And Stephany’s macro lion would cross the sky feet first, as reclining Gemini also does, but the ‘lion’ would face south-east, away from the horizons and oncoming planets, as precessional griffins in some emblems do.
The two donkeys on another pillar he sees as Bootes inverted, the upper front legs as Coma at the galactic pole; the second donkey as Canes Venatici (Hunting Dogs) inverted. However circumpolar constellations are rarely inverted (jumping down from the pole towards the zodiac). Stephany’s various schemes are cobbled together, like the ‘scientific’ paradigm of chance resemblances and gradual consensus. As if the Gobeklians tried hard to tell each other, and us, something about stars, and about our own time.
BURLEY AND HANCOCK SEE THE VULTURE AS SAGITTARIUS SOUTH
PD Burley (2013) interprets some Gobekli Tepe pillar D43 characters as (clockwise from mid right): half-bird and heron as Ophiuchus legs; rearing bird as Scorpius head; scorpion as Corona Australis and Pavo; dot as midwinter sun at the galactic crossing (‘in our current era’); vulture as Sagittarius south, one wing below the galactic centre.
Graham Hancock supports Burley’s interpretation in his own book, Magicians of the Gods (2015, p308 -325), and makes much of the supposed post-dating of the ‘star map’ to our current era. But why would the builders set their clock and their art forward by 90 degrees? The Gobekli autumn sun was in the Scorpius-Sagittarius galactic gate, where our midwinter sun is now (exactly so in 2016, as I published in Mindprint 2014, and noted on grahamhancock.com in an article in September 2015). Burley and Hancock leave the other characters on the pillar unnamed, and take no account of other interpretations.
COLLINS SEES THE VULTURE AS CYGNUS, SWAN
Andrew Collins (2014) agreed with Burley and Hancock that the pillar D43 scorpion is Scorpius, but he saw the vulture as Cygnus, its head at Deneb. Both are on the galactic Dark Rift. In his scheme, the headless man (presumably at Libra?) is dying, the ball is his separated head or soul, and House D’s holed stone is rebirth. But Cygnus had no special function in Gobekli times. Collins sees many monuments worldwide as aligned to Cygnus rising or setting, including Avebury (but see a more coherent analysis in Stoneprint p254-255), and the Giza pyramids (but see a more coherent analysis in Stoneprint p201-205). Collins also assumes a stable precessional rate, and a minor oscillation in obliquity, after the Stockwell and Newcombe curve. But Dodwell (2010, see below) contradicts stable obliquity based on known historic obliquity data.
SWEATMAN & TSIKRITSIS SEE THE VULTURE AS SAGITTARIUS NORTH
Martin Sweatman and D Tsikritsis (2017) interpret the Gobekli Tepe pillar D43 artwork as a kind of calendar (clockwise from top left): Bird as Pisces. Fox “ibex” as Gemini (but it has no horns, the style is naturalistic). Spider “inverted frog” as Virgo (but two similar spiders on pillar D33’s edge do not resemble frogs. The four ‘bags’ they see as four seasons, but not spaced by their places in the supposed ‘zodiac’). Reeds as abacus for counting dates, planets or comets (but the pillar does not have apparent numerals). Flamingo and ibis as Ophiuchus. H/I-shapes as former pole stars Vega and Deneb (but they are at the edge, thus south of the Ophiuchus. Identical abstracts appear in rock art worldwide). Sitting bird as Scorpius claws or ‘an obsolete asterism’. Skin “man” as death hieroglyph (but why not also a constellation?). Scorpion as Scorpius reversed, head in tail, tail in head (but its universal feature is a tail south-east, bent north-east). Big bird as Libra. Wolf as Lupus (the asterism does not resemble any animal, thus other factors keep a canid here for thousands of years; see the Assyrian list below). Snake as comet or meteor (but meteors radiate. And why not also a constellation?). Dot as midsummer sun (but why in the polar area?). Vulture as Sagittarius (but why reversed, tail first?).
They place Gemini opposite Scorpius, implying a celestial, observational grid, with a celestial pole more or less over Libra. But their four Age Gemini cardinals are on top, thus a kind of calendar and not a zodiac. They explain the positioning as “constrained by the shape of the pillar.” But the design compares to any inspired artwork worldwide (see the archetypal analysis below), and no features seem to be crammed in.
Sweatman challenges archaeo astronomers: “How many configurations of Pillar 43… are a better fit than the current one?” But several are, judging by at least five others, and by the various options that Sweatman keeps open, including “perhaps meaningless”. They claim to have found “orientational ordering of animal symbols” around the scorpion. But no clear scheme emerges. To this shaky edifice they apply several doubtful dating methods (see the dating section below).
DIFFERENT ‘ZODIACS’ MEANS NO ZODIAC
No single ‘zodiac’ interpretation of Gobekli pillar D43 makes astronomical, iconographic, mythic, ritual, theoretical, precessional, or archetypal sense. Each different ‘astronomical’ interpretation adds evidence that the art is not astronomical. Stephany’s two proposals (labelled A or B in the tables) also differ.
Table 1. Four ‘zodiac identifications’ of pillar D43 compared, clockwise from top left.
Table 2. Potential agreements between ‘zodiac identifications’.
The only general agreements on this pillar are the vulture as Sagittarius, scorpion as Scorpius, and the flamingo as part of Ophiuchus; but these asterisms are seen in different orientations and contexts, even reversed. Prof Vachagan Vahradyan of the Russian-Armenian or Slavonic University, and Juan Belmonte, also see the scorpion as Scorpius, but probably in the current Western configuration. These three flawed agreements, against about fourteen disagreements, raises suspicion of prejudice, and some coincidence. If there were a horse, would that be Sagittarius? Or Pegasus? Every bull is not Taurus, every fish is not Pisces, every twin is not Gemini. Correspondence ‘theory’ merely elaborates some common sense assumptions about culture. Could archaeo astronomy tell the difference between a myth cycle, a calendar, a zodiac, emblems, divination sets, and a star map? Could it reveal the core content of culture, or explain perception? Correspondences simply mix and match shapes and star lore. Archaeo astronomy needs better theories, and a more scientific paradigm, to rise above the level of a parlour game. Even crafts such as astrology are way ahead of the trans-disciplinary science. And the human sciences do not even study crafts such as ritual, myth, emblems, astrology and divination, thus removing half of human behaviour from the scope of the humanities.
There is a deeper common source of cultural meaning. There is “something more mysterious going on”, as Graham Hancock wrote in his warning against using Zecharia Sitchen’s science fiction or ‘space archaeology’ novels as ‘research data’. The entire conscious, fundamentalist, common sense paradigm of archaeo astronomy is wrong. The “mysterious” thing in the cultural record, is that we have a large universal repertoire of standard subconscious behaviour. That behaviour is imprinted all over the cultural record. But our conscious mind finds it hard to see what is hidden in plain sight. The consequences for our self-image are significant. We did not invent, develop, or change culture. Culture is part of the human package, at least since Gobekli at BC 8000, cave art about BC 20 000, Blombos shelter about BC 70 000, and perhaps even Border Cave about BC 100 000, with the usual ensemble of tools, clothing, cosmetics, and trade. Human behaviour is static, and thus predictable, down to the structure of artworks and building sites.
GOBEKLI HILL: KAULINS SEES CANCER, HERSCHEL SEES PLEIADES
Andis Kaulins (2013) extends his view of various sites as star maps, to Gobekli hill as Cancer. But where is the Hydra head? Why are there two lion houses at the supposed Lynx tail? Why would Younger Dryas people model a village on a dark zodiac constellation? Kaulins believes an ancient survey committee travelled the world to imprint constellations by way of cup marks and enhancing incidental rock profiles; an archaeo astronomy conspiracy theory.
Wayne Herschel (2013) extends his obsession with the Pleiades, and a supposedly habitable planet near its thin end, to Gobekli hill. The archaeo astronomy popular fringe likes codes, maps, time capsules and ‘alien origins’, as Hollywood movies oblige. But many of the sites where Herschel imagines Pleiades maps, express the full repertoire of subconscious structure, unknown to the builders (Furter 2016: including Far Eastern, European and Mayan sites). Pleiades is part of type 2 Builder, which expresses just one of the sixteen types, always at a smaller scale than Herschel’s mega cluster proposals, and not deriving from the sky. ‘Cluster’ is one of the recurrent features of type 2 Builder, and the sky happens to have a cluster in the appropriate place. But not all constellations happen to express archetypal features in the appropriate place. And Pleiades did not mark any seasonal point in Gobekli times. The cluster rose to mythical and ritual prominence from about BC 2300, when it hosted the spring equinox, and remained prominent through Age Aries, up to about BC 80, since it is nearly on the ecliptic, and cardinal (90 degrees) from Leo Regulus, Scorpius Antares, and Aquarius decan Piscis Austrinus.
Popular assumptions in archaeo astronomy are more consistent than their supposed evidence is. Herschel, like many archaeo astronomy and science fiction authors, impose populist myths on the cultural record, and impose various conscious motives on artists and builders, particularly lesser known cultures. Real mythographers and artists express a deeper and more consistent level of archetype. Popular science deals in shallow, rationalised and politicised myth. Even the doyens of ethno astronomy, De Santillana and Von Deschend (1969), fell victim to the ‘scientific’ common sense paradigm of culture. Did Icelandic myth cycles arise from astronomy, degraded to legend? Or do myth, ritual, art and calendars express a common source of culture, each directly from archetype, with occasional references to one another? These cross-references are easily mistaken as deriving from one another, and thus they camouflage their source.
CIRCULAR DATING AND PRECESSIONAL ASSUMPTIONS
Sweatman and Tsikritsis make elaborate arguments and extravagant claims for dating Gobekli artworks: “The probability that pillar 43 does not represent the date 10 950 BC is around one in 100 million.” This date happens to agree with the probable Younger Dryas event, but not due to their methods. Some Gobekli wall plaster was dated to BC 9530 (Dietrich & Schmidt, 2010), a thousand years after the probable impact. Some Gobekli researchers have noted that the soil infill and carbon and bone items in the plaster was older than the buildings. Sweatman sees no obstacle in a thousand years, and proposes a local observational record going back to BC 16 000, about 4000 years before the earliest possible dates for any human presence at Gobekli. They use a syllogism to test their proposed ‘meteor observation records’ and “find an apparent contradiction of our first proposal; resolved when we apply the second proposal. Logically, this implies significantly improved confidence in both proposals.” Thus their ‘zodiac’ identifications, and dating based on assumed observations and certain meteors, and the geological record, all have to agree, for their proposal to work (Their title of ‘What does the fox say’, is parodied in an archaeology blog; ‘What does the bunny say’). They place midsummer in Sagittarius in BC 10 950, or rather between Sagittarius and Scorpius, judging by their graphics. But astronomy automation uses modern values for the rate of precession, which is known from Nasa data to be slightly speeding up, and may have been much slower in the distant past.
Astronomy automation programmes assume a narrow oscillation of obliquity after Stockwell, as adopted by Newcombe. But Egyptian, Chinese, Hindu, Greek, Arabic, Medieval, historic and Mayan data contradict the ‘Newcombe’ curve. Obliquity had reduced at a slowing rate, indicating a larger bump, and fast initial righting; and a semi-oscillation of 599 years (Dodwell 2010, in Setterfield). In the Dodwell graph, the curve should be wavy due to the semi-oscillation that he had found. In addition to these astronomical uncertainties, in an era 5000 years before the earliest and rarest Babylonian and Egyptian astronomical data, earth’s orbital diameter may have been larger, and the moon’s orbit larger; and time slower. There was a different equation of time, or Delta-T in geological time (Williams et al 1998), which may have extended into the Ice Age. Thus automation errors grow exponentially larger further back. But Sweatman and Tsikritsis “know of no reason to question Stellarium”.
Using equinox and solstice sunrise and sunset as calibration dates, and their software, they see a Gobekli midsummer horizon sun at BC 10 950, and a spring horizon in BC 18 000. But the pictures on pillar D43 do not apparently mark a star map horizon. All the characters are more or less upright. Zodiacs tend to picture animals facing ecliptic west. Seasons remain in the same constellations for about 2000 years, depending on how constellations are defined.
The H/I shapes at Gobekli, Sweatman sees as “former pole stars, slightly north of Serpens”, at Vega BC 11 500 and Deneb BC 16 000, “still referenced [in the Gobekli era]… to define north or a preferred direction, by the general orientation of enclosure D, 5 to 10 degrees west of north… at summer solstice sunset… at an altitude of 42 and 67 degrees.” But this is too high up, and too long before Gobeki, to have served as a meridian; while contradicting their daily and nightly visible north. And it implies two thousand years of stubborn conservatism at Gobekli. Or, if it is all “mostly abstract”, as they say, it is not astronomy. And if it is outdated by 2000 years, then it is not astrology, which works on the celestial grid, and from the moving spring point. And ancient religions probably did not last 2000 years. Sweatman adds rhetoric of a supposed Deneb in Lascaux caves (Rappengluck 2004); and of a southern view to Sirius rising (Magli 2016); near the winter sunrise and sunset (Gonzalez-Garcia 2016); and of the Taurid meteors in winter. Then they dismiss orientations as immaterial to their zodiac picture! Their rhetorical wild geese fly all over the sky, but keep their options open by remaining on the ground.
Sweatman and Tsikritsis count thirteen characters on pillar D43, but they exclude the skin bag “man”. Lunar calendars do have thirteen months (at least in recent, known epochs), but the moon does not seem prominent in Gobekli art. And the odd number runs counter to astrological geometry. ‘Thirteenth sign’ theories mistake Ophiuchus and Scorpius, one of the four doubled constellations, as two “signs”, without separating the other three doubles (Taurus Orion, Leo retro, Aquarius Pegasus legs).
Figure 8. Gobekli Tepe pillar D38: bull-fox-bear with horns down, over pig, over three cranes. They could express seasons. Is the griffin on top Capricornus or Virgo? Or are they Ursa with the celestial pole, Sagittarius, and Pisces? The apparent dent in the griffin’s lower muzzle is a cup-mark, or ancient damage.
SOME CONCENSUS ON SEASONAL BEASTS
The four houses or “bags” at the top of pillar D43 are equinoxes and solstices sunrises and sunsets in Sweatman and Tsikritsis’ view, thus four seasons. These they see as Pisces, Gemini, Virgo, and Ophiuchus below right of the others, apparently a celestial grid deviation from their Scorpius. But why is the pelican house not their Sagittarius? And their proposed pole over Scorpius should change their Virgo to their Libra. Astrological beasts and ‘houses’ are used in all cultures, but Sweatman says nothing about astrology, or about iconography itself. Should scientists study ancient ‘science’, and not ancient crafts?
Astrologers practice a broad spectrum of archetypal applications, and they outnumber archaeo astronomers by thousands to one. Yet none have volunteered an astrological interpretation of pillar D43, probably since it is not a practical zodiac.
The search for four seasonal beasts could reveal the astrological Age of the artists. Pictures of four species on two other Gobekli pillars may be the seasons. But to Sweatman and Tsikritsis they chart the changing position of the two Taurid meteor showers during observation of 10 000 years!
Pillar A2 stacks images of a cow, fox, crane. Pillar D38 stacks a bull-fox-bear, pig, three cranes. These Sweatman sees as Capricornus, Aquarius north /south, Pisces; wherein the Northern and Southern Taurids may have progressed (moved forward against background stars) during Gobekli civilisation. But a fox in Aquarius is doubtful. And there is no sign of meteorite radials or snakes in their ‘Pisces’ area, the top left house, or anywhere else. After Gobekli, the Taurid streams may have moved on from Pisces, via Aries and Cetus, to Taurus, if precession was regular, and if these meteorite orbital nodes did progress at six degrees per 1000 years (citing Asher and Clube 1998). From all of this, Sweatman and Tsikritsis “estimate the probability” that their interpretation is coincidental, at 2%, or 98% certainty. But the sky has about twelve regions that could fit these four species, either along the ecliptic or on meridians. And which of the four hosted spring? That alone makes a difference of 6000 years (or more, if precession was slower). Archaeo astronomers are lavish with time. The Ursas could picture any of these four species, and still do in some cultures, partly since Ursa is near the poles, and spans 70 degrees; and Ursa Minor overlaps 30 of these degrees, and adds another 20 degrees. Together they span 90 degrees, covering the ecliptic grid over Leo, Cancer and Gemini, a quarter of the annual sky. There are potential bovids in Taurus, Capricornus, Virgo, and the Ursas (bull legs in Egypt). And potential foxes in Aries, Gemini, Libra, Perseus, Lynx, Bootes, Ursas, and the celestial pole. And potential pigs in Auriga, Cetus tail, Cetus, Canis Minor, Sagittarius, Aquarius, Hydra neck, and Ursa. And potential cranes in Gemini, Pisces, Cancer, Hydra, Ophiuchus, Lacerta, Draco, and Ursa Minor. These options, including Sweatman and Tsikritsis’ candidates, reduce their pseudo-statistics from “98%” to about 8%; provided that pillars A2 and D38 picture two V-shaped legs of observations of the Taurids’ real motion over 10 000 years! No culture has astronomical records that long. Constellation variants do not remain in use that long. Seasonal beasts are updated every 2000 years. And the two ‘beasts’ pillars are far apart. They deserve ridicule for their dating construct, but credit for continuing the search for the four seasonal beasts, which Stephany had started.
The pillar A2 cow is pregnant, inviting structural analysis (Furter 2017, in the anthropology journal Expression; Pregnant is the most consistent typological gender. Citing massive rock art gender data on the rarity of female characters in rock art, of Laue 2015, ASAPA conference paper, in press for 2017). A womb is nearly always type 11, also expressed in Virgo constellation and her alpha star, Spica. The sun in her horns offers the best iconographic date at Gobekli Tepe, since it probably expresses, and perhaps consciously pictures, midsummer sun and celestial pole. All three poles were aligned on this ecliptic meridian in Age Gemini-Taurus (the seasons are always 90 degrees apart). If Gobeklians knew any astronomy, and if the daily celestial pole lay between the invisible galactic pole and the annual orbital pole, we could know where the four seasonal points were. The A2 pregnant cow seems to picture Bootes, who stands over Virgo, and held the celestial pole in his ‘horns’ before this axial era. A2 is a central pillar, supporting the polar interpretation.
The A2 cow’s counterpart on pillar D38 (see the image) is a thin bull-fox or lion-bear. If Gobeklians placed this griffin in the sky as well, it may have been Ursa retro, with the celestial pole in its ‘horns’ at the time (some art traditions picture constellations retro, in the context of precession, usually monsters, not the familiar figures turned backward). Bootes and Ursa held the pole in turn, and still did long afterwards; in Egypt as Bootes spearing the Ursa bull foreleg (Bauval 2006), then spearing the Draco tail, then spearing the Ursa Minor smaller foreleg or Wippet ‘mouth opener’.
Pillar D38 expresses type 4 Pisces in house D, thus the Gobekli winter (Furter 2016; Stoneprint). Subconscious expressions never fully coincide with craft applications such as myths, rituals, art, and zodiacs, but since we do not have direct access to any of their conscious or rationalised media, we have to read the iconography, and compare potentially conscious elements in its symbolism to other early artworks, particularly Ice Age and Sumerian textual legacies (see the Plough list below). If these four species were seasonal beasts, they fit Age Gemini well: A2’s cow as Virgo, fox as Gemini, crane as Pisces; D38’s griffin as Ursa, pig as Sagittarius, three cranes as Pisces (which is two birds in the Persian zodiac, and three birds or fish in the archetypal myth map I had published in Mindprint, and in Stoneprint).
Table 3. Four Gobekli species as seasonal beasts in Age Gemini-Taurus.
Virgo, Gal. Pole
Ursa, Cel. Pole
These four animals swop positions in art, like medieval cardinal beasts in pillar decoration also do. On pillar D43, each has some features of Age Gemini and Age Taurus1, typical of transitional Age artworks. Fox burrows down over the Gemini-Taurus gate; vulture expresses Virgo and the two Leo types in the same body; skin bag rides on the Scorpius big bird’s back; ibis has the tailcoat body of type Aquarius. In iconography, the subconscious structure remains remarkably consistent, and out of conscious reach, unless systematically demonstrated. Only archetype could sustain this hologram, and its expression in various media, and its craft applications, such as astrology. Crafts do not sustain one another. Thus myth, art, ritual and architecture have their own inspiration and conscious rationalisations, including occasional illustrations, or rather references to one another. These references lure common sense, and science, into the traps of apparent diffusion. The five layers of subconscious structure, and their known elements (see the table below), is over the heads of artists, yet they all express it fluently. Like grammar, iconography is an innate, subconscious competence. Viewers also do not know how it works at deeper levels, but could instantly tell if it were absent.
In myth, fox is the trickster, as Sweatman points out. The entertaining villain may have been a pet, exterminator of vermin, hunting aid, pelt source, perhaps food at Gobekli, where many fox bones were found (Schmidt 2013). There were no dogs yet. Ethiopian, Egyptian and alchemical art makes much of red foxes.
‘ACCURATE SPECIALISED OBSERVATORY’?
Gobekli Tepe hill was “also an observatory”, propose Sweatman and Tsikritsis. But the wet climate, and annual runoffs of mud melt in the Younger Dryas, and animals such as hippo, probably necessitated mountain sites to survive, and hilltop sites (preferably facing south to the sun) to move to the slowly drying plain. Even Arabia was swampy until historic times, and Giza was an island (Gigal 2016).
They propose that “people of Gobekli Tepe were making accurate measurements of precession.” But how could we tell? There is no clear record in the art or in the buildings (but see the subconscious polar precessional tracks in house C, in Stoneprint). Their motivation? “To communicate to potentially sceptical generations… that a great truth about the ordering of the world was known… important for continued prosperity and perhaps survival.” This is science fiction, not archaeo astronomy or archaeometry. “Given the considerable lead-time in developing this knowledge,” (what knowledge? that earth crosses meteor paths all year long?), “we should not rule out even earlier demonstrations of these specialisms.” But Ice Age astronomy is rare, apart from some lunar calendars on antler bone.
Sweatman sees astronomy as the instigator of all of culture: “Symbolism encoded on D43, the date stamp… zodiac signs… H-symbols, demonstrate an early form of proto-writing… at least for astronomical observations.” Did writing develop from astronomy? Abstract shapes appear in art and rock art worldwide (Von Petzinger 2016), either badly drawn characters, or entoptics, with a surprisingly consistent repertoire (Furter 2016, Expression 13). But few known poets, artists and scientists are astronomers. If archaeo astronomy wants to contribute to the necessary interdisciplinary study of the cultural record, it needs better data, methods, terminology and theories. “Similar patterns” and “messages to the future” may be generally true, but are not scientific (Popper 1963). Sweatman’s circular logic is embarrassing: “Given the astronomical theme… the fox… should represent an asterism… to enquire whether other symbolism is also astronomical.” There is much more in the cultural record than fragments of proto-science.
CULTURE CODE IN THE BABYLONIAN PLOUGH LIST
Decanal, hourly or lunar asterisms are common in ancient art. Egypt used three different sets (Neugebauer and Parker 1969). Zodiacs of twelve characters are known from Greek times onward. The earliest known constellations are the Sumerian Mul Apin (Stars of the Plough, or Starry Furrow), of 36 or 66 asterisms. These decans added celestial authority to kudurrus (tax and contract boundary stones), often in registers that run boustrophedon (‘ox-ploughing’, rows alternating to left and right). These ‘astronomical’ artefacts express their own archetypal structure, sometimes contradicting the consciously understood asterisms, which were also subject to their own interchanges and mutations.
Table 4. Characters on the kudurru (contract stone) of Melishippak II at Susa, by archetypal number, Type and analogous Month or constellation (noting archetypal features):
2 Builder or Taurus; Enlil ram on his house (tower. More often bovid, but the former Taurus spring had newly precessed into Aries).
2c Basket or star Algol; Anu house (secret, container, woven texture).
3 Queen or Aries; Zababa raptor (long or bent neck, dragon).
4 King or Pisces; Nergal griffin (squatting) with twin post (twins).
5a Priest or Aquarius; Marduk’s house (assembly, priest).
5b Priest or Aquarius; Marduk animal (varicoloured? tailcoat?).
5c BasketTail or Piscis Austrinus; Adad’s horns (6 is often a U-shape).
6 Exile or Capricornus; Adad Storm calf (sacrifice), scalloped post (U-shape).
7 Child or Sagittarius; Shala’s house (often indistinct). The Shumalia store house (bag) bottom left could be his determinant.
7g Gal.Centre: Ninghizidda tail (path).
9 Scorpius; Shala ram (strength, more usually an ibex), with post (pillar).
9c Basket Lid or Lupus; Nushku lamp (revelation, enforcement); and plough (more typical of 3 or 3c opposite).
10 Teacher or Libra; Ninghizidda snake with forward tooth, under a staff (guard), over a scorpion claws determinant (arms up). The claw stars often interchange between types 9 and 10)
11 Womb or Virgo; Gula’s dog’s womb (womb, mother), with a granary? (wheat), fronted by a seated woman? And a vulture? (maternal) on a post (more typical of 11p).
12 Heart or Leo; Heart (heart) of Ninurta lion (felid).
13 Heart or Leo; Ninurta lion (felid, death, war).
14 Mixer or Cancer; Ninhursag’s house with wedge (polar).
15 Maker or Gemini; Ea goat-fish (more typical of 6), leg out (rampant). Type 15 should not be a goat-fish, unless the Age Taurus-Aries midwinter transition in Aquarius-Capricornus is transferred to the top central position.
Axial centre; Unmarked as usual.
4p Gal.S.Pole; Paw (limb joint).
11p Gal.Pole: Granary guard’s hip? (limb joint).
Midsummer; Horse post’s foot (limb joint), between axes 13 or Leo and 14 or Cancer; implying spring and the cultural time-frame in Age Taurus-Aries; confirmed by type 15 or Gemini at the top centre of the spatial structure.
All five layers of structural expression are subconscious to artists, architects, builders and members of any culture. Babylonian asterisms are assumed, based on late Egyptian and modern reconstructions of the Greek zodiac. In Sumerian myth, decans were arrayed on three latitudes or equators: north Enlil 33 (galactic?), central Anu 23 (ecliptic?), south Ea fifteen (celestial?); or a heliacal 34, or a lunar 36. The Enlil 33 is best known from the Assyrian Plough list in seasonal sequence, probably hour markers (adjusted every few weeks), listed here by likely archetype numbers for comparison to artefacts worldwide (with globally recurrent features in brackets).
Table 5. Assyrian copy of Babylonian ‘Plough Furrow‘ hour decans, in seasonal sequence (opposite to the hour sequence), by archetypal Number, Generic label; analogous Asterism; and Babylonian emblem (noting archetypal features):
2c Basket or star Algol; Plough; Aries Triangulum (knife), held by type 2 Perseus or type 2 Andromeda.
2 Builder or Taurus Pleiades; Large matted star (cluster, woven texture 2c). Archetypal spring ‘house’.
2 Builder or Taurus Pleiades; Seed (cluster), ploughed funnel, wolf; perhaps Hyades (cluster), or Perseus (twisted).
1 Builder or Taurus Orion; Old Man, Enmesharra; Orion or Auriga.
15g Gate or Galactic crossing; Crook staff; Orion’s club or Camelopardalis in the galaxy.
15g Gate or Galactic crossing; Large Twins (doubled, of 15), End; Gemini feet or road (gate).
15 Maker or Gemini; Small Twins (doubled); Gemini Pollux or Canis Minor.
14 Mixer or Cancer; Crayfish in estuary, Anu’s home; Cancer, Age Aries pole, archetypal summer ‘house’.
13c Head; Leo Minor (felid of 13), Latarak.
13 Heart or Leo star Regulus; King (more typical of 4, but here a warrior, typical of 13) and Lion (felid) Leg upper bone, and Ursa foreleg (death), perhaps star Duhr (Zosma).
12 Heart or Leo rear; Tail, date palm fan of Erua and Zarpanitum; star Denebola or Coma.
11p Gal.Pole; Enlil who determines Kur mountain’s ‘aptitude’ (moving limb joint angle).
11 Womb or Virgo; Zibaanna; Virgo Spica (crop) or Bootes alpha star Arcturus.
10 Galactic Pole diversion; Before Arcturus, Chegalaju, Ninlil’s messenger.
10 Teacher or Libra; After Arcturus, Baltesha, messenger of Tishpak.
10 Celestial Pole diversion; Large Wagon, Margidda, Ninlil; Ursa or slowly moving Celestial pole.
9c Lid or Lupus; Wagon Shaft. Archetypal meridian, opposite the 2c starting point. Nergal’s Fox (canid).
9 Healer or Scorpius head; Front of Wagon, Mother Sheep (opposite 3 Aries); Scorpius star Antares.
9 Ecliptic Pole diversion; Yoke (juncture on limb joint) of Anu, great heavenly one; perhaps Ecliptic pole in Draco.
9 Healer or Scorpius head; Small Wagon; Hercules (strength) perhaps an Ursa stand-in as former Age Taurus autumn marker.
9 Healer or Scorpius head; Seed Lord. Star Antares, opposite type 2 Furrow. Star on Cable; Libra scale on Serpens chain.
8 Healer or Scorpius tail; Interior of Temple (pillar), first son of Anu; perhaps Ophiuchus (strength).
7 Child or Sagittarius; Gula, Goat, Boat (chariot); Buck cocoon (bag, named ‘buck bag’ in archaeology).
6 Exile B or Capricornus; Before goat, Sitting Dog; a late Babylonian midwinter marker.
6 Exile or Capricornus; Goat’s eye, Baba’s messenger.
5c Tail or Lyra; Behind the goat, two stars (double-headed), Ninsar and Erragal.
5b Priest or Aquarius rear; Leopard (varicoloured, felid of 13 opposite). These ecliptic features are below the galactic asterisms of Cygnus Swan, and Cepheus Sea Monster.
5a Priest or Aquarius rear; Right of Leopard, Pig of Damu. This is a clue to what pig icons in all cultures, including Gobekli Tepe, may express.
4p Gal.S.Pole or Pegasus; Left of Old One, Horse (as Pegasus).
4 King or Pisces; Behind Old One, Stag; Cassiopeia at Pegasus or Andromeda star Alpheratz.
==plus an overlap of the first four as higher ‘magnitues’:
3:18 Queen or Aries; Stag breast (sacrifice), Weak stars, Rainbow (bent neck); star Hamal.
2c:18c Basket or star Aogol; Stag kidney, Destroyer; Perseus Algol, formerly a red star.
2:17 Builder or Taurus Perseus; Marduk (twisted).
1:16 Builder or Taurus Orion; Mobile, Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions (cluster), or eclipse cycles, at Galactic gate.
“These are the 33 stars of Enlil”, ends the Assyrian list. But the list has 35, including four poles (three at the galactic pole and Bootes, indicating an Age Gemini-Taurus tradition); and some duplications, and the overlap; and some galactic decans in Scorpius; leaving about 20 characters, typical of archetypal art (average 16, plus two poles, and/or two gates, and/or two of the four transitional types).
Thus the Plough list is at least as archetypal, and mytical, and ritualist, as it is astronomical, or rather calendric. The overlap ‘clasp’ at the end expresses four of the five higher magnitudes of typology (types 1:16, 2:17, 3:18, 4:19, identified in Furter 2014; Mindprint). The other higher magnitude is part of the main list as usual (5a and 5b), where the magnitude jumps from base16 to base17 (see the list of archetypes below). Thus the ‘periodic table’ of culture is almost as complex as chemical elements with orbitals, atoms with quarks, or DNA with haemoglobin knots.
Culture parades its structure in stories and pictures, but conscious distractions are part of their camouflage. Against the elegant complexity of archetypal logic, Schaefer’s (2006) view that the Plough decans were “zodiac precursors” seems incorrect. We do not see Greek dramas as ‘soap opera precursors’, rather as more elaborate or esoteric expressions of culture, which also has dumbed-down versions. The late Assyrian version we have, of BC 687, was contemporary with the Greek zodiac, and there is probably some referencing between them. Decans are elaborate, and zodiacs are minimal versions of archetype on a stellar canvas. Both reveal the common source of cultural media, perception, nature, and the structure that underlies nature. The sky is not the only, and not the primary canvas of culture.
There is a fox in the Plough list, among three canids: type 2 as Perseus, or his legs, as a wolf over a furrow (well known among alchemical emblems); 6 Before the Goat, Sitting Dog (shuffling midwinter marker, known in Greek lore, archetypally in Capricornus); 9c Lid or Lupus as Nergal’s fox (canid). Star lore has a few more canids, notably Canis and Canis Minor of 15 Maker or Gemini, but each is distinctive, and differentiated by their other typological features If this Lupus fox harked back to Babylonia or Sumer, that would not imply that oral traditions sustain culture. Foxes play the same roles worldwide, but that does not imply that culture only dramatises animal behaviour. Average global frequencies of recurrent features clearly indicate a subconscious repertoire. When bards tell one another ‘their’ myth cycles, they do not attach frequencies to each recurrent feature, such as twisted posture, bovid, arms up, staff, felid, womb, canid, kind of canid, and so on. There is a layered kind of ‘Zipf code’ in culture, as there is in language. Speakers and writers use certain words twice as often, and half as often, as certain other words (Zipf 1935). Archaeo astronomy needs an interdisciplinary approach, including the philosophy, psychology and iconography of archetype, to study the cultural record.
ARCHETYPE CONTAINS CLUSTERS OF MEANING
Cultural media use several kinds of symbolism, such as syllogism, synedoche, allegory; and they do so interchangeably, just as our dreams do. Ploughs, sowing, reaping, foxes, snakes, dragons, teeth and soldiers play out dramas that only our collective subconscious, within our natural environmental niche, could sustain. One of the astronomical versions, of one of the details of our cultural repertoire, is a small canid on the polar ‘plough’, as in the Greek-Egyptian Dendera round zodiac. One mythic version is Samson’s foxes with torches tied to their tails, set loose in an enemy’s corn field. An Akkadian Agade cylinder seal shows two gods ploughing with a lion and a dragon, perhaps type 15 Maker or Gemini, ‘controlling’ the pole or plough by a ‘plough rope’ via Ursa and Draco. The hand of one god is a scorpion, indicating a celestial meridian between Gemini or the gate, and Scorpius or the galactic centre gate. There is also a tooth, bird, eight-pointed star (one of the three poles, often mistaken as a planet), crescent in a field, and three furrows (equators). The dragon extends from star, to field, to plough, its teeth ploughed in, as in the Egyptian hieroglyphic pun for goddess Sirius sinking and re-arising yearly; and as in the Greek myth of Cadmus.
Myth, art, calendar, ritual and asterisms together reveal the core content of culture. It is not all about certain codes or messages from ancestors. The list of known features of recurrent characters in art and architecture, and their average frequencies, is growing (after Furter 2014, 2016, expanded in June 2017, see an update on www.stoneprint.wordpress.com).
Table 6. Archetypes by number, label and analogous constellation (not ‘sign’); some known recurrent features with their global average frequencies:
[UPDATE 2019; The list of known recurrent features and averages was expanded by adding data from ancient miniature artworks, including Babylonian, Indian and Greek seals. See Stoneprint Journal 5 2018, and some 2019 posts].
12/13 Heart or Leo; heart /interior 85%, felid 20%, death 33%, war 17%.
14 Mixer or Cancer; ingress /egress 50%, bird 10%.
15 Maker or Gemini; rope 30%, ordering 25%, bag 10%, face 10%, doubled 10%, canid 8%, creation, churn, sceptre, mace, rampant.
15g Galactic Gate; gate 20%, river 6%.
Certain limb joints near the centre of artworks play ‘polar’ roles:
Axial centre or ‘ecliptic pole’; single point 100%, limb joint 26%.
Midsummer or celestial pole; limb joint 50%.
Midwinter or celestial south pole; limb joint 37%.
ARCHETYPES ON PILLAR D43
The design on Gobekli pillar D43 subconsciously expresses the usual five layers of archetype, including the 16 characters, several of their optional features, their sequence, the ocular axial grid, the polar structure, and the time-frame orientation.
Table 7. Type labels; Characters on Gobekli pillar D43 (noting archetypal features):
1 Builder or Taurus Orion; Reed hut (see Inana huts of twisted reeds, with animals and totems). Some Gobekli stone figurines have loophole bodies, like Chinese ‘house’ weights for leather covers, and Babylonian ‘hut’ trade weights.
2 Builder or Taurus Pleiades; Same hut or keep.
2c Basket or Perseus star Algol; Spider (weave).
3 Queen or Aries; Flamingo (long neck).
4 King or Pisces; Water-bird or ibis (bird), squat body (squatting).
4p Gal.S.Pole; Bird neck bend (limb joint).
5a Priest or Aquarius; Water-bird heart (heart of 12 opposite), or tail (tailcoat head).
5b Priest or Aquarius; Bird sitting (horizontal), near the axial centre (ingress of 6).
6 Exile or Capricornus; Triangular body or tailcoat (more usual at 5).
7 Child or Sagittarius; Skin (bag), head blank. Perhaps a bird meat fermentation cache. Often a transforming cocoon or ‘buck bag’ in rock art.
7g Gal.Centre; Large bird’s neck (limb joint), perhaps on water.
8 Healer or Scorpius tail; Large bird, forward (bent).
9 Healer or Scorpius head; Scorpion (rare in art, but expressed in Gobekli, Western and Mexican zodiacs).
9c Basket Lid or Lupus; Wolf (canid).
10 Teacher or Libra; Snake (guard? More typical at 9c).
11 Womb or Virgo; Womb (womb) of vulture, maternal (mother, as of the Egyptian vulture Mut).
11p Gal.Pole; Vulture elbow (limb joint).
12 Heart or Leo rear; Pendant (heart, opposite heart-shaped body at 5a).
13 Heart or Leo front; Vulture or eagle, militant (war).
14 Mixer or Cancer; Small bird (bird), far from the centre (egress).
15 Maker or Gemini; Fox (canid), burrowing (rampant inverted). Some authors identify it as a felid based on the long tail, probably an error. Some authors identify it as a left-facing ibex, certainly an error.
15g; Gal.Gate; Gap (gate) between two houses.
Midsummer; Orb. Confirmed by the vertical plane. This marker places summer on the axis of Leo1, implying spring and the time-frame in Age Taurus1, as in some other Younger Dryas artworks and buildings. However the time-frame is probably before work, as usual, expressing the era of the perceived formation of the culture.
Iconographic dating in artworks is approximate. Cosmology and myths are aids to interpretation, but art is not astronomy, nor just illustrations of myth, or ‘culturally conditioned’ trance visions, as some rock art researchers believe. Art is a fully independent cultural medium. Visual and spatial expressions operate at several levels of scale in all cultures. Pillar D43 itself expresses type 4 King in house D; while house D expresses one of the two type 15 Maker houses in Gobekli village. Similar scale levels on sites in Egypt, India, Africa, Europe and Mexico have the same level of complexity, thus culture, and human behaviour, is a given quanta, independent of the level of economic and technological maturity of the society.
SUBCONSCIOUS BEHAVIOUR IS HARD FOR THE EGO TO ACKNOWLEDGE
Artists do not await or consult astronomers, astrologers, philosophers, or dreams. And artists did not, and still do not learn, teach, record or follow a programme or code down to minute detail of archetypal features. It is all innate in our eye, hand, mind, and environmental co-ordination. And it is compulsively complete. Art and culture is all or nothing. We could not tell, design or build a different ‘story’, or half a story. We did not invent culture, and we could not change it. Thus the cultural record offers access to objective meaning, but it comes with uncomfortable implications for our ego.
Structural art analysis now enables conscious access to culture, and to subconscious behaviour. Human culture outlives ‘different’ cultures, its core content and styling options intact, immune against tampering. Sweatman and Tsikritsis propose that “The implications of coherent catastrophism (Younger Dryas meteorite impact) are profound, for how we interpret evidence of past events (archaeology, geology, anthropology, climatology, etc).” They estimate that the implications of a Gobekli zodiac, or systematic astronomy, would be “staggering”. But all cultures have zodiacs, decans, calendars, astronomy, and occasional artistic geniuses. The implications of archetype in the cultural record are greater than the mere presence of the usual media. And archetype raises larger questions: what are perception, meaning, behaviour, culture, and nature?
Gobekli Tepe offers a precious halfway point between Ice Age cave art, and Sumerian civic multi-media records. It deserves meticulous multi-cultural study. A brief remark in an article on Graham Hancock’s website, labels the archetypal approach as ‘lazy’, compared to the presumably hard work of correspondence ‘theory’. However correspondence theories turn out to be idle speculation on where recurrent motifes may have ‘originated’, usually ending in favour of the earliest known cultures and sites. Thus Gobekli is now considered evidence of a ‘mysterious ancient super civilisation’, to borrow Hancock’s term.
The net result of diffusionist games of ‘broken telephone’ or imperfect imitations, and successive ‘Russian boxes’ in the search for cultural inventors, adds up to already known routes of trade, acculturations and aspirations. Diffusion may involve some research, but it reveals nothing of culture or behaviour itself. Considering the theoretical context of archetype, already developed in philosophy, reflexology, psychology, anthropology, sociology, and cultural crafts (Furter 2016); structural anthropology is not ‘lazy’. Instead, the subconscious functions of cultural media strain our common sense assumptions.
Popular anthropology could not be blamed for its theoretical deficiencies, while some of its scientists remain stuck in the eternal catch-22s of the conscious, logical, causal, diffusionist, developmental and ‘evolutionary’ paradigm of culture. There is something much more natural in culture. Human nature lies camouflaged in the forests between the footpaths of common sense logic.
SOURCES AND REFERENCES
Allen, RH. 1899 Star names and their meanings. Lost Library, Glastonbury
Asher, D.J. and Clube, S.V.M. 1998. Towards a dynamical history of proto-Encke. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, Vol. 69, iss. 1, 149-170
Banning, EB. 2011. So Fair a House; Gobekli Tepe and the identification of temples in the PPN Near East. Current Anthropology, Vol 52 n5, Oct, p619-660. Univ of Chicago Press
Bauval, R. 2006 Egypt code. Century
Burley, PD. 2013. Gobekli Tepe, Temples Communicating Ancient Cosmic Geography. www.grahamhancock, March. Also in Hancock 2015 [DISPUTED ABOVE]
Collins, A. 2014. Gobekli Tepe, genesis of the gods. Bear & Co, USA
De Santillana G, Von Deschend H. 1969. Hamlet’s Mill: An essay on myth and the frame of time. Boston: Gambit
Firestone R.B. et al. 2007. Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12 900 years ago that contributed to the mega-faunal extinctions and the Younger-Dryas cooling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Vol. 104, issue 41, 16016-16021
Furter, E. 2014. Mindprint, the subconscious art code. Lulu.com, USA
Furter, E. 2015. Art is magic. Expression 10, Dec. Atelier Etno, Italy
Gender of characters in cultural media, adds a range of natural and social nuances to other typological categories, which have emerged from structural art analysis statistics. This paper compares the small range of genders to the wider range of attributes in cultural media, to demonstrate some aspects of the rigorous ‘grammar’ or ‘DNA’ of behaviour as embedded in artefacts.
The wider aim of typology is to develop a terminology and baseline for the study of categorically recurrent motifs in artefacts, and thus to revive the structural approach to conceptual anthropology.
[This paper by Edmond Furter, author of Mindprint (2014), and Stoneprint (2016), was first published in the anthropology journal Expression, edition 15, March 2017, by Atelier Etno].
Several rock art studies have confirmed that gender in art is not just a binary (male or female) category. Archetypal structural analysis confirms that typology in cultural media is more complex, yet more globally consistent, than artists, viewers or cultures could consciously manipulate. Typology, including gender attributes, is an innate or compulsively subconscious expression of perception, thus of natural structure and archetype itself. Typology requires specific terms, images and tables to describe and study. The core content of culture consists of certain predictable characters, recognisable by their attributes; and their peripheral sequence; and the precise relative positions of their eyes as pairs of opposites; and two consistent exceptions to eyes; and certain average frequencies of certain attributes of types. In this cumulative or over-determined definition, each pre-condition is a multiplication factor of identity, eliminating the role of conscious imitation, or chance.
The highest frequency of archetypal expression in culture thus far identified is type 11, expressed as a pregnant womb, at 87% on average worldwide. [Subsequent to this paper, statistics from 45 building sites confirmed that builders express 11 Womb or ‘Virgo’ as an interior 81%, mother 61%, tomb 13%, water feature 11%, library 11%, wheat 6%, law 6% [see the updated list based on a larger sample, in later posts]. Churches or statues of St Mary are typical of the type 11 axis on Western building sites].
Among tens of thousands of rock art characters in the Cedarberg and southern Drakensberg regions in Southern Africa, Lauie (2015) categorised male, indeterminate, or female, and noted a few hermaphrodites. In the Kimberley region of Australia, Holt and Ross (2016) categorised unsexed, male, homosexual, female, bisexual, or ambiguous. They noted that artists express gender by primary [natural] keys such as genitalia, and/or secondary [social] keys such as relative size, dress, items and context. Several studies have revealed the relative dominance of male characters, and the surprising rarity of categorically female characters in rock art. Beltran (1966) noted males as more common and diverse (in terms of non-gender attributes). Lauie (2015) reported only about 5% (or one in 20) categorical females in Southern African rock art. Holt and Ross (2016) reported only 8.3% (or one in 12) females in Wanjina art; and only 11.8% females in Painted Hand styling. They found 50% females in Argula and Jillinya rock art, however the subjects are local nature spirits or angels (which in most cultures are female or non-male). Poor technique and styling conventions may obscure the intended gender of some rock art characters. Holt noted “a large proportion of figures classified as unsexed… because of the lack of iconographic standardisation in each style [in the same area].”
Even extreme stylisation, typical of polities in potential territorial contest, does not overrule the core content of archetypal typology that all artists, mythographers and ritualists express in all media (Furter 2016. Expression 14). If researchers shared the same definition of gender categories, and took account of related factors of typology, statistical results would be identical worldwide, in all eras and media, including amateur and professional art. However some of the subtleties of cultural media remain beyond words, requiring images and tables to reveal.
Media, such as myth, emblems, ritual (Furter 2014), and building features (Furter 2016. Stoneprint), confirm gender as a limited range of attributes, inherent in larger sets, such as status (god, ancestor, parent, adult, peer, juvenile); or posture linked to a social function (such as rainmaker, hero, monster, emperor, king, priest, nature guardian, strength, creation, healer, trader, mother, prophet, creator); or genera (particularly bovid, avid, equid, caprine, feline, reptilian, canine, and piscine). In art, characters express gender in the context of a panel or group, and sub-groups (such as peers; enemies; tutor-pupil; hunter-quarry; parent-child which may be merged in a pregnant female; human-animal which may be merged in a therianthrope).
Type 11 is a womb on an axial grid
In any coherent artistic grouping of about twelve to about 22 characters, there is usually one pregnant female; and her womb is always between type 10 Teacher or Libra and type 12/13 Heart or Leo; and her womb is always on the invisible axial grid that connects the eyes of the opposite pairs of types, as if her womb were an unborn eye; and these combined conditions apply at an average of 87% of artworks, irrespective of continent, ‘culture’, styling, age, media or technique. The adjacent type 12/13 Heart or Leo always (85%) has his chest (heart) on the axial grid. On building sites, the type 11 Womb is often a mound, platform, dome, or building dedicated to a young mother (such as Mary); and type 12/13 Heart or Leo is often a bastion, platform, armoury, tomb or cenotaph (Furter 2016, Stoneprint). Type 11 Womb or Virgo could be any species (often a bovid, horse, giraffe, hippo or human), usually visibly pregnant (Mindprint demonstrated this in 100 rock art examples, 100 art examples, and listed 200 more. Stoneprint demonstrated 130 building sites. See some examples in Expression editions 9, 10, 13 and 14 [see later posts based on larger samples]).
Here is the sequence of the twelve basic archetypal characters (four of which usually unfold into two each, thus usually sixteen), with mythical labels added to enable memorisation (noting that typology does not derive from myth or astrology, which are equally archetypal); with their usual genders, and known features:
There is clearly no conscious design in the range of recurrent attributes; or genders, or their sequence; or the axial grid of eyes; or the average frequencies; or the polar and temporal structure at the centre (which is outside the scope of this paper); or the consistency among cultures and eras, including Ice Age and modern art and buildings. Complexity and consistency both indicate that recurrent attributes in art are subconscious, collective and thus archetypal.
Myth and astrology ascribe three decans, or adjacent sub-types, to each of the twelve major types, however the four large types have four sub-types, making a total of about 36 or 40 decans. Constellation Virgo’s traditional decans are Spica (Corn Ear); Corvus (Crow); and Hydra (Water Snake). She shares Coma Berenices (Hair of Berenice, at the galactic north pole); and Crater (Grail), with adjacent type 12 Heart or Leo. Part of her slice of sky (since astrology is an imperfect expression of archetype) is occupied by most of Bootes (Herdsman, a decan of adjacent type 10 Teacher or Libra), whose attributes of ecological and spiritual balance, justice, and wheel of fortune she often takes on, to express physical Justice or Fortune. Artists often express type 11 Womb or Virgo with flora, notably a wheat ear in Medieval art. Flora and pregnancy invite the interpretation of a semi-conscious symbol or metaphor of agriculture, as Mateu (2002) did in Spanish Levantine rock art. Mateu speculated: “Females were represented carrying out tasks such as clearing fields, harvesting, sowing, herding… and… production of sons and daughters… The politico-ideological strategy is to hide, and give limited social value to females in relation to… social life.” Mateu’s study aimed at ‘fragmentation’ (perhaps intending a kind of deconstruction), but succeeded only in imposing certain fundamental, ideological and ‘evolving’ motives on artists and on recurrent artistic motifs. There is more reliable and more accessible philosophy available in classic iconography, including the Tarot trumps. If symbols and metaphors were logical and defined, there would be no need for variant versions of myth, art, ritual and ‘non-functional’ architecture. However conventional methods of art analysis, including attempted ‘psychological’ methods, have failed to explain, and even failed to describe recurrent motifs in art.
Art is rigorously structured
Structural study of art revealed the eternal female as an archetype expressed in natural and cultural media. She is not a relic of a supposed stage of socio-economic development, or a stage of conscious philosophy. Archetypes, or rather the set of archetype (since all the parts imply the whole, and are expressed in their complete context), is a pre-existent potentiality that informs nature and culture, including myth, art, ritual, and buildings. Archetypal structure enables interchange between natural and cultural media, including the myth maps that all cultures impose on constellations. The nature-culture interchange is particularly notable in categories of species, and of genders. Archetype thus is structurally logical, and not a symbol or metaphor of any aspects of nature or culture. Conscious symbolism shares in some aspects of archetype, such as plants and wombs as dual sustenance of life. However conscious logic differs from archetypal logic. Common sense does not account for consistently recurrent motifs, or their layered structure, or their consistent frequencies. Thus archetype requires scientific study. The revelation of archetypal expression in the art of all cultures and eras is still a novelty in science and esoterica, despite the efforts of structural anthropology over several decades to reveal natural logic in artefacts and rituals. Decline in the popularity of structuralism and depth psychology, are among the indications of the eternal divorce between our conscious and subconscious minds, and of the tendency of science to serve practical and broadly political ends. We prefer to pretend that we invented and developed culture into many different ‘cultures’ (as discussed in Expression 14 under the theme of colonisation). Yet the prevalence of typology confirms structure as self-motivated, inherent, and compulsive to culture, as it is to nature. No amount of styling could change cultural structure, which remain rooted in archetype. No amount of conscious manipulation of ‘symbols or metaphors’ could have made cultural media as subtle, nuanced, and rigorously structured as they are. Science has been less successful in the study of culture, than the study of nature, where the periodic table predicts reactions, and parts of protons have cracked under nuclear physics since it developed optional pairs of labels, such as ‘charmed or strange’. The study of culture has fallen behind the study of nature.
The natural rules of subconscious behaviour are relevant to the disciplines of conceptual anthropology, cognitive archaeology, sociology, psychology, art history (particularly iconography) and semiotics. The humanities in general should resume the incomplete work of structural anthropology and depth psychology, in a multi-disciplinary or trans-disciplinary (Td) context. Further research into cultural expressions of gender, should study all typological factors, in the context of global, archetypal, subconscious expression. Typological analysis of artworks and building sites, may resolve the gender of some characters or features, notably type 11 as an unborn child in a female; types 4, 8/9, 10 and 12/13 usually male; type 7 often juvenile; type 15 often a pair or couple; types 1 /2, 3, 5-20/5-21, 6 and 14 often of intermediary genders.
This paper was first published in the anthropology journal Expression, edition 15, March 2017, by Atelier Etno.
Sources and References
Beltrán, A. 1966 Sobre Representaciones Femeninas en el Arte Levantino. CANIX, 90-93. Saragosa University
Boeyens, J.C.A. 2014 Number theory and the unity of science. South African Journal of Science, 110, PP. 11-12
Furter, E. 2014 Mindprint, the subconscious art code. Lulu.com, USA
Furter, E. 2015 Rock art Where, When, to Whom. Ed. E Anati. Atelier Etno, Italy
Furter, E. 2015 Rock art expresses cultural structure. Expression 9. Atelier Etno, Italy
Furter, E. 2015 Structural rock art analysis. Association of Southern African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA) conference, Harare. Univ. of Zimbabwe, in press
Furter, E. 2015 Art is magic. Expression 10, Dec. Atelier Etno, Italy
Furter, E. 2016 Abstract signs in art as shorthand for cultural structure. Expression 13, Atelier Etno, Italy [the magazine layout scrambled captions and text, to be corrected in the book: Meaning of abstract signs]
Furter, E. 2016 Colonial artists re-style the same characters. Expression 14, Atelier Etno, Italy
Many chemists chart the periodic table on a spiral. Most tables
introduce gaps at certain intervals, to account for gaps in the
progression of stable properties along the progress of atomic numbers (Z-numbers, usually equal to electron numbers). Maurice Peyroux’s periodic table introduces gaps from 2He Helium to 3Li Lithium; 10Ne Neon to 11Na Sodium; and 18Ar Argon to 19K Potassium. He extends the fields for 1H Hydrogen, 4Be Beryllium, 12Mg Magnesium, and 21Sc Scandium. Similar adjustments continue among the heavier metals, to align some atomic properties in radial columns.
By making four slight tabulation adjustments in the standard gaps, the Peyroux table core forms a 6×5 squared spiral of elements:
10Ne Neon and 18Ar Argon move across the artificial transition to the left;
11Na Sodium moves into part of the large 12Mg Magnesium field;
18Ar Argon displaces 19K Potassium into the Sc21 Scandium field;
20Ca Calcium moves into part of the 21Sc Scandium field.
Here is Peyroux’s periodic table spiral as a squared grid, with elements over their atomic numbers (number of protons, or number of electrons):………….[tables are omitted in this extract]……….
Elements in the same rows are seven or eight protons apart, thus one electron orbital apart; here marked [v]. Gaps _ appear from 7N to 8 O; and from 15P to 16S. The periodic table compares directly with the stoneprint types: axial opposites are seven or eight types apart; higher magnitudes are fifteen types apart. Two galactic and two polar points intervene in ‘gaps’. Here is Peyroux’s periodic spiral table of elements, over atomic numbers (identical to stoneprint type numbers), over seasons or myths or constellations: ……..[tables are omitted in this extract]…………
Four gaps (marked =) coincide with two galactic and two polar features: 7g Galactic Centre [Galax]
11p Galactic Pole [pGal]
15g Galactic Gate [Gate]; Electrons [e-]?
4p Galactic South Pole [pGs]; NO GAP, but some tables do place a gap between 19K Potassium and 20Ca Calcium.
The four transitions at top and bottom, coincide with four semi-types:
2c Basket; 2He to 3Li, gas to solid
5c Basket Tail; 5:20Ca to 6C, silt to fuel
9c Basket Lid; 9F to 10Ne, reactive to inert gas
13c Basket Head; 13Al to 14Si, metal to rock.
These four structural points, and four semi-types, were first isolated in art and rock art analysis; then confirmed in organ reflexology points; and tabulated by seasons; then confirmed in buildings and site analyses; then tabulated among elements. Thus nature confirms cultural structure. In hindsight, this study should have started with natural structure. However the result is the same: structure is pervasive, enabling creation and perception, including ‘thought’. One of the differences between the cultural stoneprint spiral, and the natural periodic table spiral, is that the atomic spiral is contracted, or more tightly rolled, introducing a coil of ‘opposite’ types between lower and higher magnitude versions of the double-layered types. Here is a comparison ……………….[extract from Stoneprint, 2016]
[order the book Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities, at $30 plus postage from Four Equators Media, via edmondfurter at gmail dot com].
Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities (Edmond Furter, 2016, Four Equators Media, 400 pages, 170mm x 295mm, 130 illustrations) resolves the mysteries of correspondences between ancient cultures. The book reveals the core content and ‘grammar’ or ‘DNA’ of culture. We have an innate subconscious compulsion to express a specific, complex, archetypal set of features, in sequence, and on an axial grid, in all our works.
The book demonstrates the innate universal structure in our works, including art, rock art, houses, kivas, temples, villages, sacred sites, monuments, pyramids (Egyptian, Chinese, Olmec as well as Mayan pyramid fields), and cities.
The examples range from the Ice Age thaw at Gobekli Tepe, Malta, and Scotland; to prehistoric sites such as Babylon; semi-historic sites such as the Giza, Avebury and Stonehenge landscapes; historic sites such as Ephesus, Rome, Axum, Quebec, and Cape Town; and across all continents and cultures, including Africa, the far east, south America (including Nazca) and North America (including Mystery Hill).
Among the cultural media that carry the human code, and camouflage it from our conscious mind until revealed by structural analysis; are rock art, ‘fine’ art, ritual, myth, poetry (such as two examples of Babylonian building rites, and two poems by William Blake) buildings, sites and region (such as Babylonia).
Nature also express archetypal structure. Stoneprint reveals several direct links between subconscious cultural expressions, and the periodic table (when charted on a spiral as by Maurice Peyroux); chemical elements; reflexology charts of our palms, irises, teeth, earlobes and inner ears. Our eye-hand-mind co-ordination expresses the same universal structure in building sites, even by different architects, and different generations of rulers and builders.
Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities, now enables conscious access to our subconscious behaviour, which is revealed as standarised, rigorous, universal, eternal, complex, yet measurable.
The book places the discovery of subconscious behaviour (first reported by the author, Edmond Furter, in Mindprint in 2014), in the context of the esoteric crafts of alchemy, kabbalah, cosmology, astrology, and art; as well as the context of each human science: art history, archaeology, anthropology (with a humorous detour into popular archaeology), psychology, and sociology.
The implications of the discovery of the universal stoneprint structure, for popular culture (including various schools of popular archaeo astronomy) , and for the human sciences, are significant.
Order the book Stoneprint, in Europe at E30 plus postage, from Four Equators Media via [edmondfurter at gmail dot com], payment on Paypal.
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The index indicates the broad scope and depth of 28 years of research reported in Stoneprint. Each relevant craft and science is placed in context. Natural expressions are compared to cultural expressions. Each building site is illustrated by a map, and at least two pages of detailed structural analysis.
2 Architecture reveals our subconscious building code
3 The Five levels of structure in cultural media
3 The sixteen archetypes, in sequence
4 The axial grid of focal points
6 The four borderline types
7 The two galactic gates or cross-points
7 The polar clock of Ages
8 The six polar points
9 Structural analysis example of a site sketch plan
The cultural context of the human code
11 Alchemy: Crafts reveal chemistry
13 Chemistry reveals biology
15 Kabalah: Natural philosophy correspondences
17 Poetry: Blake’s London- Jerusalem- Golgonooza
21 Poetry: Blake’s Tyger describes expression
22 Poetry: The Stoneprint rhyme
24 Astrology: Calendars reveal divination
27 Cosmology: Direction is everywhere
The scientific context of the human code
31 Art History: Perception reveals gestalt
37 Archaeology: The World Archives challenge
42 Anthropology: Artefacts reveal structure
47 Popular Anthropology: Who did it?
52 Psychology: Behaviour reveals archetype
57 Philosophy: The universe reveals archetype
60 Communication Science: Structure is the message
63 Sociology: Behaviour reveals our self-image
66 Science and esoterica: our split consciousness
70 Why I wrote Stoneprint
73 [Chapter A] Natural elementary maps
74 The periodic table reveals atomic structure
80 Nuclear particles reveal atomic polar structure
81 Compounds confirm the axial pairs
82 Constellations chart our cosmos and myth
84 Astronomical poles in our cosmos
86 A crop circle solar system implies two grids
92 Earth imprints a motto: ‘I oppose artifice’
94 Trails of architecture in two crop circles
95 Numbers have character
96 Mars ‘face’ geology invites human gestalt
99 [Chapter B] Natural body maps
100 Our hands carry the imprint
102 Our eyes are windows to the body and structure
104 Our minds carry the imprint
106 Dental reflexology: the ‘boneprint’ in our cave
111 Our outer ear lobe reflex map
112 Our inner ear reflex map
113 Eye, palm, teeth, ear and organ map
114 Limb joints mark six poles
115 [Chapter C] Natural culture maps
116 Piacenza bronze liver double circle of gods
120 The sixth layer of culture is style conformity
121 Three sets of Etruscan gods integrated
121 Planets express poles and gates, not types
122 Gods or liver maps, which came first?
123 Piacenza city and its walls are cultural stoneprints
125 [Chapter D] Culture maps
126 The Maikop silver bowl paradise
128 Paradise, Fall, and Babel in a nutshell
129 Mapungubwe’s gold foil oracle reconstructed
130 A Venda divination bowl
132 An Italian Goose game board
134 Pedra Pintada engraving oval, and pentagons
138 The Bulgarian Karanovo tablet answers questions
139 [Chapter E] Ice Age sites
140 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe house C, polar boars
147 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe house D, type 14
150 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe house B, type 2
152 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe house A, type 3
154 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe excavation and radar maps
156 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe pillar D43, a culture portrait
158 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe grey pillar
159 Babylonia: Inana huts, Nevali Cori kiva, Kurdish huts
160 Turkey: Gobekli Tepe site perspective
161 China: An Iron Age T-shaped silk drape
162 A Greek healing pillar, and Shinto dressed pillars
163 Spain: Malta’s Mnajdra double stoneprint
164 Spain: Malta’s Gigantija double stoneprint
167 Spain: Hal Saflieni’s underground stoneprint
168 Scotland: Skara Brae plans
169 Scotland: Jarlshof wheelhouses and recycling
170 Spain: A Menorcan taula reconstruction puzzle
171 [Chapter F] Early civil sites in Sumeria
172 Babylonia was a stoneprint in clay brick
174 Babylon city, a vortex of dispersion
176 Two mythical gates
177 King-priest Ur Nanshe builds a temple
178 He built sixteen shrines
179 His crafts reveal subconscious method
180 He casts the circle of eternity, or polar ring
181 He was a visionary like Solomon
182 He works magic: as below, so above
184 He was an inspired architect, like Hiram of Tyre
185 He did not understand the building plan
188 He taxed the clans for construction
190 His allies and contractors
191 He surveys eight rooms, and erects eight doors
193 He set up six slabs as poles
194 An, Enlil, Enki: three equators to survey the site
195 Assyria: T-pillars and Y-tents in an army camp
296 Egypt: Narmer’s camp, and a school camp
197 [Chapter G] Early civil sites in Egypt
298 Sakkara, first royal campus, and a stepped pyramid
200 Teti’s pyramids form a stoneprint in Sakkara
201 Giza pyramid field stoneprint
204 Giza pyramid field is also a polar map
206 Kings Valley tombs are underground stoneprints
212 Queens Valley entrances lost and found
214 A ‘Syrian’ queen in a womb among wombs
216 Edfu temple is a double churn
218 Senmut’s ceiling stoneprint is half zodiac, half duat
220 Duats and decans are arch mutators
221 [Chapter H] Civil outpost sites
222 Nubia: Meroe pyramids speak with their doors
224 Egypt: Nabta Playa slab field counts four Ages
226 Egypt: Hawara labyrinth in Kircher’s Gnostic vision
228 Nubia: The cornucopia of minister Huy
230 Palestine: Jerusalem temple mount hybrid
233 Patriarchs, pharaohs, and kings
234 Palestine: Jerusalem, womb of three religions
236 Judea: Masada, a military stoneprint
238 Turkey: Nemrut hill, crossroad of Persians and Greeks
242 Australia: Elivna rock pavement engraving
244 Ethiopia: Axum is an ark of spiritual mysteries
247 Ethiopia: Lalibela temple field of bedrock ‘hearts’
249 Ethiopia: Lalibela’s Mary church; womb in a womb
250 Ethiopia: A reverse rock imprint spells ‘Rotas’
251 [Chapter J] Prehistoric European sites
252 Ireland: Drombeg house, a cosy double stoneprint
254 England: Avebury and Silbury landscape
256 England: Stonehenge counted three ages
263 England: Damerham circles in radar scan
264 England: Stonehenge landscape radar scan
266 England: Stanton Moor landscape; boulders and ‘ladies’
268 Greece: Phaistos palace, the other Greek labyrinth
270 Germany: Magdalenburg mound graves
273 Scotland: Stennes stone circle
274 Scotland: Cochno stone concentric engravings
275 [Chapter K] African sites
276 Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe, landscape with a womb
278 Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe queen’s yard with a womb
280 A kudurru boundary stone calendar spring bird
281 Egypt: Dendera zodiac summer bird
282 Zimbabwe: Nhunguza and Penhalonga metallurgy floors
283 South Africa: San Bushman painted stoneprints on rock
284 Mali: Nature and culture on a Dogon mud wall
286 South Africa: Lydenburg concentric engravings boulder
287 [Chapter L] Eastern sites
288 India: Buddhist wheel of life landscape panorama
289 India: Sanchi temple gate pagoda engraving
292 Nepal: Kathmandu palace square temple complex
294 China: Beijing Temple of Heaven park, an Aquarian cosmos
295 China: Choukungmu pyramid fields need more research
296 Japan: Nara Basin Horyuji temple, galactic manifestation
297 Japan: Todai temple, a living site
298 Japan: Himeji, Shirasagi-jo temple, White Heron nests
299 [Chapter M] Mexican sites
300 Izapa pyramid field and stelae, new world, same stoneprint
302 Izapa cacao tree ritual stele, a third layer of structure
304 La Venta pyramid field, spire eyes, platform womb
306 Monte Alban double stoneprint works with the landscape
309 Coba, a triple Stoneprint with interlocking ‘galaxy’
310 Uxmal was contested by a witch, a dwarf, and a king
312 Chichen Itza has temples to planets, and a stoneprint
314 Chichen Itza village scene, a busy day
315 Teotihuacan mountain stream, and rain woman mural
316 Teotihuacan pyramid avenue, Leo sun, Virgo moon
318 El Tajin pyramid field, double thunder
320 Palenque lid cosmic tree and double stoneprint
322 Palenque pyramid field, chaos among order
323 [Chapter N] North and South American sites
324 Peru: Machu Picchu, Mayan capital in the clouds
326 Bolivia: Tiahuanaco island’s Sun Gate is the sun type
328 Chile: Atacama geoglyphs with Aquarian tailcoats
330 Peru: Nazca plain geoglyphs express ecological structure
332 Peru: Cuzco’s Coricancha constellations reveal an update
335 USA: California’s Painted Rock, theatre of time
340 USA: Lower Colorado River geoglyphs has a calendar clock
342 USA: Hopi kiva 5mT2, and its village, hinge on a womb
344 USA: Colorado’s Mystery Hill metallurgy plant or tech school
346 USA: Crow Canyon kivas Block 100 has two missing features
347 [Chapter P] Historic Western sites
348 Italy: Rome, eternal city with an Age update
350 Italy: Rome’s gates and bridges are eloquent
352 Italy: Rome’s Capitol Forum, contested but constant
354 Italy: Rome’s Quirinal forums for spiritual order
356 Italy: Rome’s Vatican City, a stoneprint inside type Aries
360 Italy: Brescia has Mark’s lion, Mary’s womb, John’s bull
362 Turkey: Ephesus, former city of Amazons and Artemis
363 Icons: Serapis and Ophiotaurus, half-monsters
366 Spain: Santiago de Compostella, of a son of thunder
367 Spain: St James and Hercules, hybrid planetary characters
370 Canary Islands: Las Palmas governor’s house facade
372 Canada: Quebec, Victorian ideals in stone
374 South Africa: Cape Town’s Dutch forts claimed a footprint
376 [Chapter Q] Structural analysis formats
376 Kinds of media in the 130 examples
376 Commission impossible: design a stoneprint site
377 Emblems, icons, constellations and Tarot trumps
382 [Appendices] Structural analysis formats
382 How to find the subconscious structure on a site plan
382 The structural analysis format
384 About the author
385 Sources and references
Main group of Nazca geoglyphs (after National Geographic. Stoneprint labels and axial grid by Edmond Furter). Straight lines were removed for clarity. North is left.
Hundreds of criss-crossing trapezium lines form a kind of ‘forest’ over the core area of the Nazca geoglyphs. The character figures are in continuous-line format, indicating a well-developed style, perhaps based on textile weaving crafts, or to enable processions. Their ecological themes speak of climate change. Here is the peripheral sequence of characters in the Nazca core area is (noting archetypal features):
1 Builder or Taurus; Spiral A (twisting).
2 Builder or Taurus; Spiral B (twisting), due west of the axial centre.
2c Basket or Algol; ? and ?, directly between 2 and 3, off the grid as the c-types usually are.
3 Queen or Aries; ? near small trapezoids (3 Aries Triangulum, knife).
4 King or Pisces; ? near an orca whale (fish, or decan Pisces Cetus, Whale). None of these figures are to any astronomical scale or orientation, and thus archetypal. 4p Galactic South Pole; End (juncture) of a distinct set of parallel lines, aligned to a distinct small rectangle.
5a Priest or Aquarius; Alga sea-bird, long, large (large).
5b Priest or Aquarius; Condor (varicoloured), spread-eagled (hyperactive), large (large). To its south, on a hill among water flow lines, lies the halved man, with a tailcoat head (of type 5c).
6 Exile or Capricornus; Spider, long rear leg, near the centre (ingress).
7 Child or Sagittarius; Small cluster of lines, perhaps looped (bag, rope); also the spider’s ball and thread (rope, bag).
8 Healer or Scorpius; Head outline over a pair of large hands (strength feat), adjacent to a tree (pillar); also a large flower (unfolding is more usual at type 7) on a thick stem (pillar).
9 Healer or Scorpius; Lizard (more typical of type 10), arms forward (bent forward).
10 Teacher or Libra; Iguana, stiff-legged (staffs or pillars, more typical of type 9).
11 Womb or Virgo; Spiral D; and a frigate bird (off the image frame) carrying a large bag (womb, like the stork of Western myth). 11p Galactic Pole; Heron beak (limb joint).
12 Heart or Leo; Bee or insect.
13 Heart or Leo; Spiral C.
14 Mixer or Cancer; ? near the centre (ingress)
15 Maker or Gemini; Pelican?, diving, with a large dewlap (bag).
Galactic polar markers are outside the irregular equator of types, an unusual feature. There is no horizontal axis, since the figures are all differently oriented. The celestial poles may lie north-south of the axial centre, placing summer in Leo-Cancer, thus spring and the cultural inspiration in Age Taurus-Aries, about BC 1500, long before the work as usual.
The general theme of the Nazca geoglyphs could be type 8/9 Healer or Scorpius, typical of pillars (here a tree of life), trance vision, healing, ritual, and strength (here as large hands).
The stoneprint analysis score of the Nazca geoglyphs map is 16/25 attributes, 16/16 axial points, 2/5 polar markers, 2/4 thematic features; total 37/50, minus 5 extra features off the grid; total 32/50, or 64%, just above the average range……………. [see a revised scoring formula in later posts] …………..
[order the book Stoneprint at $30 plus postage from Four Equators Media, via edmondfurter at gmail dot com]…………..
Alchemy is a structural craft, based on geology, metallurgy, herbs and protochemistry.
It enabled the discovery of the periodic table (in phases, separately by the geologist De Chancourtois, by Meyer, and Mendeleev). Many of the technology aims of the craft were realised, including transmuting metals and minerals, such as oil and coal into plastics. Transmuting human nature proved impossible. The alchemical impulse for individual self-improvement is not the same as the evolutionary paradigm of science, which seeks and finds evidence of our former supposed primitive state, and of our current supposed elevated state, among the rags of cultural mutation.
The industrial revolution (see Blake’s London, under Kabalah below) had transformed the spiritual version of alchemy into a consumerist cult of alcohol, pills and drugs, making pharmacy and addiction the main economy worldwide. Consumerism transforms experience and people, but not for the better. Practical alchemy is a perpetual impulse in all people and cultures, expressed in cooking, experimentation, and attempted meddling in the structural expressions of nature, lately via genetic engineering. All crafts apply archetype, but only alchemy and kabalah study the implied structure of things and processes. The spectacular result was chemistry and biochemistry.
The Hermetic dictum, inherited or re-invented from alchemy, stresses “the miracles of one only thing… all things have been and arose from one, by the mediation of one, so all things have their birth from this one thing,” in Newton’s translation of the emerald tablet.
Alchemy, like all the esoteric crafts, is largely an elaborate natural correspondence theory, tested by isolating and ‘tacking’ attributes between different sets or categories of things. Thus our alchemical impulse laid the groundwork for chemistry and physics, which closed the circle by finding predicted elements (including Helium), and eventually photographing particles and waves. Among natural categories, alchemy includes some cultural categories, such as motivations and personality, the domain of astrology (which recently became psychology). Structural anthropology also reaped some of the ‘bread’ that alchemy had once cast on the waters of natural philosophy, by applying correspondences to social behaviour.
Ironically the human sciences now shun multi-disciplinary approaches, because they resemble crafts. Instead, the humanities isolate single classes of things, and apply tests of logic to theorise the parts of each class. Science and esoteric crafts now both suffer from the assumption that most behaviour, and therefore culture and artefacts, are conscious, practical constructs, mastered by conscious skills. This ‘scientific’ paradigm results in correspondence theories, typically of supposed ‘hidden knowledge’ that could be shared, improved, withheld, scrambled, or lost.
However the ‘grammar’ of culture is impossible to use consciously, or to fake, even now that it is revealed as readable in artworks and building sites (see the Commission Impossible section)………… [order the book at $30 plus postage from Four Equators Media, via edmond at syrex dot co dot za, using Paypal ]……
Culture, and the study of its media and mechanisms, is not an idle game. Culture integrates subconscious and conscious elements in our perception and behaviour. On consciousness, Carl Jung (1951; Alchemical interpretation of the fish) wrote: “Without the existence of conscious concepts, perception is impossible. This explains numerous neurotic disturbances which arise when certain contents are constellated in the unconscious, but cannot be assimilated, owing to the lack of perceptive concepts that would grasp them.
“It is extremely important to tell children fairytales and legends, and to inculcate religious ideas and dogmas into adults, because these things are instrumental symbols, with whose help unconscious contents can be canalized into consciousness, interpreted, and integrated. Failing this, their energy flows off into conscious contents which, normally, are not much emphasized, and intensifies them to pathological proportions. We then get apparently groundless phobias and obsessions; crazes, idiosyncrasies, hypochondriac ideas, and intellectual perversions, camouflaged in social, religious, or political garb”.
Alchemists and astrologers had an intuitive grasp of the need to study myth and the inherent structure of nature and culture, including organs and personality types, long before psychology was a science, or even a word.
Crafts and science became popular pursuits, thanks to the printing press, enabling the Enlightenment. Jung and Freud have made the elements of personality, components of the soul, defence mechanisms, and therapy, into popular crafts and household terms.
The study of archetypal expression on a worldwide scale became possible only in the last two decades, thanks to access to rock art reproductions in academic papers, field work, archives; and plans of buildings, temples, ruins, complexes, pyramid fields, geoglyphs and cities of every culture and era, posted on the Internet. Demonstration of stoneprint in these two media, raises the possibility that more features of the culture code could be discovered in more media, such as literature and personality. The humanities may yet catch up on natural sciences.
The periodic table was resisted by leading scientists for several years, for being ‘simplistic’. Psychology was resisted by other sciences, including medicine, for being ‘shamanistic superstition’. Our reluctance to see culture as subject to universal laws, is evident in the limited applications of structural sociology. We label repetitive behaviour as ‘ritual’, and as ‘primitive’ (as even Levi-Strauss did). We treat ritual as a remnant of our supposedly former ‘savage thought’ (the title of one of Levi-Strauss’ best known books, mistranslated into English as Savage Mind). We should study mythical logic, or mythologics (the title of one of Levi-Strauss’ more substantial, but lesser known books). Anthropology anthologies demonstrate that human sciences developed from crude assumptions, to a variety of sophisticated theories and applications (Hayes 1979; From ape to angel). The study of nature, and abstracts such as geometry and math, seem mature and sophisticated in comparison………….. [order the book Stoneprint at $30 plus postage from Four Equators Media, via Edmondfurter at gmail dot com, using Paypal ]…………..