Crop circles are natural artworks

Art is more natural, and nature is more artistically creative, than ‘common sense’ and the human sciences assume. Natural forces lavish some structure on inviting surfaces, over and above the necessities of geology, chemistry and biology. Nature is generous with patterns on shells, wings, feathers and skin. One of her canvases for geometry and abstract shapes, are crop fields on chalk, over water-bearing greenstone. Formations of stalk node bends are her signature stamps.

[EVENT UPDATE: The author will present a slide show on the discovery of the archetypal structure in crop circle clusters, at the Mystic Fayre in Pretoria Theosophy lodge, Sunnyside, behind the DTI parking entrance, secure parking, 55 Meintjies Street, on Saturday 16 December 2017, at 10:30 AM. Two books and three magazines will be on sale. Presentations at other scientific and esoteric societies will follow in 2018].

Our doodles, artworks, building sites, myths and rituals, resemble nature at work and at play. Nature and culture both compulsively, and subconsciously, express layers of eternal, archetypal structure that predate creation, and inform ongoing re-creation. When at play, nature uses biological shapes, and what we label ‘abstract’ angles and numbers, as basic as space, time, and what we egotistically label as ‘concepts’. Her digital doodles express repertoires that resemble ‘our’ geometry and calendars. If crop formations were archetypal emblems, then clusters of formations unfolding over several years in ‘active’ fields are her ‘albums’. It takes about fifteen years of re-plantings and harvests for nature to complete a coherent cluster of about 18 formations in a each active field. Formations of previous seasons are lost to human memory, but our photographic and satellite scan records could restore the ‘ghosts’ of former seasons. Restorations of crop circle clusters now reveal that nature designs her doodles in four dimensions; two dimensions of the practically flat field; a third of height, including some woven textures; and the fourth of time, where the sequence seems less important than the combined and invisible result. Nature’s landscape doodles vary in scale from a few metres to a few hundred metres, in clusters about equal to the size of a large village.

Crop circles have come to mean many things. Cameras, aircraft, satellite scans, drones and increasing numbers of fake formations have raised crop circles into the partly conscious interplay between nature and culture. If there were any contradictions between natural energy and natural art; or between the sources and motivations of nature and culture; such contradictions are only in our conscious minds. This article demonstrates that the visual and spatial structure named mindprint, revealed in art in 2014, in building sites and geoglyphs in 2016 (where it is labelled stoneprint), is also present in crop circle clusters (identical in structure to artworks, but where it may be labelled geoprint or ecoprint). This article extends the evidence that we re-express, or re-create, instead of ‘create’ shapes, numbers, pictures and meaning itself (see a recent article on semiotics in rock art, referenced as Furter 2017 B). One of the many lessons inherent in crop formations, and in the controversies they invite, is that our understanding of nature and culture, and of our place in nature, is incomplete.

Edmond Furter, 2017. Crop circles are natural artworks. Stoneprint Journal 2, November. An extract from this article will be added to the second edition of Stoneprint.

‘Any apparent contradiction between nature and culture is only in our conscious minds.’

Crop circles form axial clusters over years

Natural forces imprint clusters of crop formations, each with about eight pairs of opposites on an axial grid, at the ‘active’ corp circle sites in Western Europe (see another time lag restoration, of the Windmill Hill cluster, below). The archetypal five-layered structure, including some of the known optional features in the sequence of the ‘characters’ on the grid, and including specific ‘polar’ markers near the centre, unfold over about fifteen years. The clusters become visible, and testable by the new structuralist art analysis named mindprint or stoneprint, when reconstructed on a map of adjoining fields, using an application such as Getmapping.

An accumulated cluster appeared at Milk Hill, a mile north of Alton Barnes, from about 2000 to 2014 (see the image above). Successive clusters are likely to appear there, and at all the active sites. The recent Milk Hill crop circle cluster expressed some of the attributes of all sixteen archetypes; in the standard sequence; with their focal points on a single axial grid (where all the invisible lines between pairs of opposites cross); with two shorter polar axles between a different kind of feature, named junctures or ‘limb joints’ The shorter of these two axles indicate the precessed celestial poles, or ‘summer-winter’ position, as if the structure were a cosmogram (see the star map below, again with the caution that the structure does not come from the sky, but is also expressed in the sky). The same multi-layered structure was found in cultural artefacts, and demonstrated in hundreds of artworks, rock art works, and building sites, to be the human universal subconscious visual ‘grammar’ of archetype. Expressions of the archetypal structure in nature and culture are named mindprint in artworks (Furter 2014), and stoneprint in building sites (Furter 2016).  Several cultural media re-express archetypal structure (art, geoglyphs as at Nazca, buildings, cites such as Rome and Quebec, myth cycles, and ritual). Similar imprints in nature include the periodic table of elements (see below), and the abstract properties of numbers (see below). In cultural media, nature and human behaviour collude to re-create the natural structure within which our hyper-active species manifest. In crop circles, culture colludes with nature instead (see the section on fake crop formations below). Thus crop circles are rare examples of natural ‘artworks’, apparently by-products of practical functions such as atoms, compounds, crystals, the plant kingdom, species and stars.

The Midlands crop fields canvas

Milk Hill ridge extends to Walker’s Hill on the west, near Lockeridge road. This hill and nearby Tan Hill are the two highest points in Wiltshire, at 294m. There once was also a white horse on Tan Hill. The cluster is near near Windmill Hill (see its own crop circle cluster reconstruction and structuralist analysis below). The wider English Midlands area has several ‘active’ or annual crop formation sites. Just south-south-east from Milk Hill lies the double village of Alton Priors and Alton Barnes. South lies East Field. Just south-west lies Stanton St Bernard. Some of the formations adjacent to the Milk Hill cluster (visible at the edges of the illustration), are probably parts of an adjacent Alton Barnes and Stanton St Bernard cluster. Just south of the two Alton villages lies Honey Street. South-east from Milk Hill lies Avebury stone circle and Silbury mound, also an annual crop circle area, with many man-made features that express a stoneprint of their own (see a map of the Avebury cultural landscape cluster below, or Stoneprint p254 -255).

Using the standard mindprint or stoneprint structuralist caption format (and noting some of the relevant recurrent features in brackets), the sequence of archetypes among the Milk Hill crop circles of recent years is listed below, by archetypal numbering and familiar astronomical labels (with the caution that the formations, and the structure, and numbers, do not emanate or derive from the sky, or calendar, or planets, or from any craft or science, but all express the eternal structure of archetype):

Milk Hill and Alton Barnes -Stanton St Bernard crop circle collage of about 1995 to 2014 (after Borziani 2014. Axial grids by ED Furter). The plan view is more exact than the oblique view below.
Milk Hill crop circle time cluster collage reconstruction (after Borziani 2014, in Getmapping format. Archetypal labels and axial grid added by ED Furter). Borziani added coloured circles around the restored formations, after his interpretation of the reflexology theory of the seven yogic chakras (wheels). Structuralist analysis demonstrates a much more detailed, layered, universally consistent, and thus archetypal structure. Nature expresses a similar structure in many other media, including chemical elements, DNA, human iris, palm ear and organ reflexology.

1 Taurus; Hexagram of pentagonal stars, 1997 08 08.

1TaurusB; Hexagonal flower over concave flower, 2000 07 01. No opposite, probably fake.

1 TaurusC; Triangle of 7-shaped weave (twisted) in standing crop, over two rings of standing crop, in Celtic style, 2011 07 06 and 08, in phases. No opposite, probably fake.

2 Taurus; Hexagonal spiral aperture (twisted), on the hilltop. One of the largest formations known, of 409 circles (cluster). A ‘seed of life’ Julia geometry set, of six unfolding to twelve. 2001 08 14? Its position on the hill is further north-east than on the image (left and upward, off the collage image), and its axis down the hillside should be bent, but an oblique perspective better demonstrates the cluster.

3c Cista; Milk Hill prehistoric building site (hidden), perhaps a grain silo (container), formerly with wattle fence, roof and baskets (woven textures).

3c CistaB; Seven-sided form, at the field edge.

3c CistaC; Cross of four discs, one with a crescent, space station shape, 2017 (not shown on the collage above, since it appeared later). Fake?

3 Aries; Nine-sided form, petals rectangular, 2001 07 12.

4p Galactic South Pole; Tracks and fields border corner (juncture or ‘limb joint’).

4 Pisces; Hexagonal thorus.

5 Aquarius; Vesica eye, a hint of colour (varicoloured).

6 Capricornus; Envelope, or pants, or Y-shaped (tree) tessellation puzzle, 2005 05 29.

7 Sagittarius; Hexagonal foldout (unfolding, bag). Another formation in the adjacent field is on the same axis (doubling is more typical of 15 opposite).

8 Scorpius; Bar-and-dot (in the adjacent field).

9 Scorpius; Infinity ring, 2008 08 08, hinting at ‘888’, typical of spiritual power (strength). A Venus eight-year cycle began on that date, when the Beijing Olympics started at 8PM. Eight means prosperity and confidence in the East. In gemartia, 888 equals Iesous (Jesus, who was a healer) in Greek. Tarot trump 8, Strength, wears a hat with a wimple, relevant to the Venus cycle as calibrator of erratic solar magnetic cycles (Collins and Cotterell 1995). In the central medallion are eight circles around a central circle. A relief carving of this formation was made on a pebble allegedly found in Mexico. And a small hexagonal circle that lay in the same position.

10c Cista Lid; Tetrahedron?

10c Cista Lid B; Compass, pointing at a former long barrow? (not shown on the image)

10 Libra; Seven dolphins in hunting ‘school’ (school), vortex (ecology), 2009 06 02. Overlaps 11, as constellation Libra overlaps Virgo. Correspondences between media are due to archetype, not to inter-media rendition.

11 Virgo; Central chakra (womb) of swift-shaped bird, 2010 07 25 (the axis goes to the centre of the formation, not to its ‘head’ as seems in the oblique view. See a plan view of the field below, which enables a few corrections to the identifications and the axial grid).

11p Galactic Pole; Head or hand (limb joint) of a small design squeezed between 11 and 12.

13 Leo; Heart chakra (heart) of a curved (rounded) monster with vesica eye, 2012 06 25. Opposite the eye at 5 21.

14 Cancer; Swifts with seven chakra trails, tree-shaped (tree), 2003 08 04? Far out (egress). Below Adam’s Grave long barrow.

14-15 extra; Nine-petal flower with spiked tracks, 2001 07 12, fake?

15 Gemini; Sextant with sprung weights or planets, 2009 06 21, 23 and 30 in phases, adding an asteroid or comet near Mars and Jupiter (comet Ison was seen four years later), then adding five trails of architectural shapes (ropes, churn, creation, order). On June 21, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune and a new moon lay between Aquarius and Taurus, around Aries constellation. Two years later, near Mayan calendar 13.0.0.0.0 (2011 06 02), sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Uranus aligned opposite earth and moon in May and June, around Aries-Taurus constellations (their border is in Perseus, at the star Algol, which expresses type 3c Cista. (The axis goes to the centre of the formation, not the ‘head’ as it seems in the oblique perspective. See a plan view of the collage below).

15 Gemini B; Tetrahedron polar, 2007 06 07, fake?

15g Gate; Milk Hill white horse geoglyph (path).

15g GateB; Wasp hatching from a oak gall, hinting at gall ink, 2004 06 25 and 26. Below the white horse. [See an article about this crop circle, gall wasps and ink, on http://www.stoneprintjournal.wordpress.com]

15g GateC; Three-armed vortex. Below the white horse, fake?

15g GateD; Hexagonal flower around star of David, below the white horse; fake?

The axial centre, analogous to the ecliptic pole in cosmology, is unmarked as usual. The ‘celestial pole’ is on the central custacean formation’s tail (limb joint), placing ‘summer’ in Gemini, thus ‘spring’ and the cultural time-frame in Age Pisces, contemporary to the work. Age Pisces ended in 2016 (Furter 2014, 2016). Nature may be less inclined to use time-frames of previous ages, than human artists do, as if we paid homage to the age of the apparent formation of the culture in which we believe our inspiration lies. However about 50 crop circle time-lapse clusters should be re-constructed and structuralistically tested, then compared to the larger database of artworks and building sites, before such differences could be tracked.

Alton Priors crop circle collage from about 1995 to 2014 (after Borziani 2014. Tentative axial grids by ED Furter). This map lies directly east of the Alton Priors map. Adjacent stoneprints (expressions of archetypal structure) are often ‘geared’ to one another by way of mirrored or ‘flipped’ sequences.

All five layers of structuralist expression are subconscious to nature, artists, architects, builders and members of any culture. The number of known archetypal features in this work are probably less than the average of 40% to 80% found in artworks. Abstract geometric characters require rules of interpretation and scoring that differ from figurative art. Since the structuralist study of crop circles is new, some recurrent attributes different from those found in cultural media may yet be identified.

Milk Hill white horse (after Lucy Pringle), with the hexagonal formation in the 15g area in the cluster of recent years. It was probably a fake, positioned to make a good photo.

The Uffington white horse was re-carved and re-chalked many times (photo after Webb Aviation). It may have been a stylized horse or lion in Pictish style. It probably inspired all the other horse geoglyphs in the UK.

White horse geoglyphs imitate a stylish lion

Milk Hill’s white horse was made in 1812 by Robert Pile, of Manor Farm at Alton Barnes. Him or his son may have also made the first Pewsey horse. Pile had paid a painter, John Thorne, twenty pounds to design and cut out a horse image. Thorne contracted John Harvey of Stanton St Bernard, but left with the money. Pile then had to pay Harvey as well. The absconding Thorne was said to have been executed for another crime. An earlier John Thorne, also named Jack the Painter, was hanged for arson in the dockyard at Portsmouth in 1776. Legends tend to fuse and confuse. In 1866 cleaners dug a new chalk pit just above Pile’s white horse. In 2010 the new owner, Tim Carson, and Alton Barnes Parish Council, renovated the horse with 150 tons of chalk delivered by helicopter. The Milk Hill horse looks over Pewsey Vale, towards the newer Pewsey horse. It is lit up by candles on special occasions, as at winter solstice 2001, 2002, 2004 to 2011, and on 30 June 2012, its 200th anniversary. In Alton Priors stands a sarsen stone at the roadside with a small figure of the Alton Barnes white horse carved on it. All the white horses may have been inspired by the Uffington white horse, which may have been a stylized horse or stalking lion, both among the Pictish beasts (see Stoneprint Journal 1). The style of the Uffington animal on the hillside resembles medieval Pictish metal wire brooches, which in turn resembles Viking and Norse styling, which in turn may derive from Asian steppe metalwork, which initially imitated felt textile styling. The ‘prehistoric’ white horse and other British geoglyphs may be post-Roman, like most of the British Isles’ earthworks, barrows and henges, including most of Stonehenge. Very few British structures, such as Skara Brae, may predate the Iron Age (see the Europe chapter in Stoneprint). Due to the Dark Age after Roman evacuation, ‘prehistoric’ in the British Isles does not necessarily mean before the Roman age, or before the Christian era.

These natural ‘baskets of mystery’ indicate that art imitates nature. Nature has no reason to imitate art.

Nature and culture express archetype

Nature and culture both express archetypal structure at several layers of scale, each in distinctive combinations of elements and shapes. Below is a list of structuralist scale sets, from large to small, with some notes on the way that crop circles express shapes typical of each natural scale level.

Andromeda galaxy is a multiple spiral vortex. This type is usually flat. Lenticular galaxies are even flatter, while globular galaxies are oval spheres.

Barbury Castle hexagonal vortex crop formation, 2007 04 19. Several formations resemble typical galaxies.

Universal scale of innumerable galaxies

Universal scale is variously defined, ranging from ‘infinity’ down to a cluster of galaxies exploding from one another. The universe contains an apparently infinite number of galaxies, most with spiral arms, as if they were residues of rotating manifestations or transformations of matter and energy, or ‘little bangs’. Some crop circles express galactic shapes, or their cultural versions, such as yin-yang discs.

Apparent motion tracks of stars in a binary system, here of Sirius A, Sirius B, around their centre of mass, C. The elliptic circles demonstrate their relative orbits.
Chilbolton radio telescope site formation, including a binary pair image of antenna dishes, 2000 08 13.

Galactic scale of pairs of stars

At galactic scale, millions of star systems, mostly binary pairs, are locked in rotation, some far apart and very slow, some close together and incredibly fast, where the boundaries between matter, energy, space, time and gravity are warped. Our sun probably also has a double, perhaps Sirius in Gemini (which itself is a trio of stars in rotation), or perhaps Alpha Centauri. Some crop circles express star system shapes in binary designs.

Cambridge Gog Magog hills formation may express a ‘Ptolemaic’ earth-centered solar system of apparent orbits, as a maze. The offset from the joint centre may express the alternative, sun-centered view, more familiar to us.

 

Planetary orbits reduced by a logarhythmic scale, in relative positions of 2012 December at one of the Mayan calendar zero points (After Horace Drew). Pluto or one of the many planetoids is in a much earlier or later position.
Avebury Manor solar system formation, 2008 07 15. See ana analysis of its archetypal structure, and of hits apparent calendar dating, below.

Stellar scale of solar systems

At stellar scale, many star systems have planets and satellites, as our solar system has. Some crop circles express solar systems on the familiar logarhythmic scale, with rings as orbits, and small circles as oversized planets. Some anomalous markers hint at irregular meteorites or comets among the regular planets. Some formations apparently mimic ‘planets’ or ‘chakras’ (see the reflexology scale below).

Crop circle of earth as a tree and sphere, resembling Norse cosmology. It also resembles alchemical diagrams of elements, such as the Boehme emblems.

Planetary scale of geography and geology

At planetary scale, earth has continental plates, oceans, and circulation patterns of air, water, magma and magnetic fields. Some crop circles express these elemental layers by abstract geometric shapes.

Stockbridge Down spiral, ratchet, sprocket, escape mechanism or lambdoma, 1995.
Mathematical lambdoma model after Pythagoras. Some chemists chart the elements on a spiral with steps down from the simplest and more abundant elements at the centre.
Periodic table of elements (after Peyroux, with atomic or structuralist numbers added by ED Furter). Many chemists chart the elements as a spiral.
Spiral, ratchet, sprocket or escape mechanism in a crop circle (after Wired). Jumps enable storing and releasing potential energy at set intervals. The geometry also expresses Pi (as noted by Mike Reed). Jumps resemble groups in the periodic table of chemical elements, and could express the eccentricity of the elliptic orbits of planets, or calendar adjustments.

Atomic scale of elements

At atomic scale, matter consists of about 100 elements, each formed of atoms with a different number of protons, neutrons and electrons. The sixteen simplest elements, from 1H Hydrogen to 15P Phosphorus (including a ‘blank’ between 5B Boron and 6C Carbon), express the sixteen archetypes in an abstract way. The next six elements, from 16S Sulphur to 21Sc Scandium, express part of the next level of magnitude (including two magnitudes of 5, at 5:20 Ca Calcium, and 5:21 Sc Scandium). Some crop circles seem to express atomic structure in geometric terms, but both should be seen as expressions of archetype.

Atoms are made up of nuclear particles, where matter and energy are in constant flux. Sub-atomic properties come in pairs, like charges. Some crop formations express this flux by adding to or erasing some expressions in phases, usually a day or two after the initial formation (see the phases in the solar system crop circle detailed below). Flattened and standing crop often alternate in complex patterns.

Atomic numbers map iso-types

At atomic scale, number and geometry play pivotal roles. Numbers indicate the total of positrons in the nucleus of a stable atom (isotope) of an element. This number is equal to the number of electrons, of negative charge, in the shell or shells of atoms. There is usually also an equal number of charge-less neutrons in the nucleus, thus atomic mass is usually twice the atomic number. This equation applies from 1H Hydrogen up to 20Ca Calcium, which has a mass of 40 (except 4Be Beryllium at a mass of 9 instead of 8). Heavier elements all have a few additional neutrons, and thus atomic masses of slightly more than twice their atomic numbers (electrons have negligible mass). The number before a chemical symbol indicates protons or atomic mass (such as 1H). The number after a chemical symbol indicates a bond of several of the atoms (such as H2).

Archetypes are listed here with their corresponding chemical isotopes, noting some of their typical bonds and properties (and noting relevant archetypal attributes in brackets):

1 Taurus as 1H Hydrogen. Flammable in air, eight times more energy than wood. Common in H2O Water, which could split (sometimes expressed by rain or lightning in art), into H and O, Hydroxide. Typical of water.

1:16 Taurus as 16S Sulphur. Higher magnitude of 1H. Common at oil sources. Bonds with its lower magnitude 1H to form H2S Hydrogen Sulphide. Used in gunpowder. Of lightning and fire.

2 Taurus as 2He Helium, inert gas, second-most abundant element. No taste, colour, odour. Coolant, treats asthma, thins air. Of fuel.

2:17 Taurus as 17Cl Chlorine, strives to be Ar18. Higher magnitude of 2He. Steriliser, bleach, releases oxygen in water, reacts with impurities (cluster). Toxic in CCl4, chloroform.

3c Cista Mystica as Helium-Lithium and Chlorine-Argon transition.

3 Aries as 3Li Lithium, lightest solid. Against gout, epilepsy, diabetes. Of cures.

3:18 Aries as 18Ar Argon, inert gas, formed by Cl17 Chlorine. Via its opposite 10Ne, argon combines with 11Na to form NaCl. Of salt formation.

4 Pisces as 4Be Beryllium, atomic weight 9. In hard alloys. Of metal.

4:19 Pisces as 19K Potassium, higher magnitude of 4Be. In compounds and organisms (like its opposite, 11 Virgo Sodium). Lost by urine and sweat, from fruit and sea salt, for nerve and muscle action. Of life.

4p Galactic South Pole between Beryllium and Boron; the first extra neutron (juncture)

5 Aquarius as 5B Boron, antiseptic, nerve poison; thins water. Of cleansing.

5:20 Aquarius as 20Ca Calcium, a higher magnitude of 5. In mud and bone (skull, skeleton, tomb). Of kidney stones (varicoloured), mud and bone.

5:21 Aquarius as 21Sc Scandium, also a higher magnitude of 5. Oxidising (hyperactive). Elusive, of dispersion.

6c Cista Tail as the Boron-Carbon transition.

22c Cista Wing as metals, perhaps the higher magnitude of 6c. From 22Ti Titanium (also used in hard ceramics) to 30Zn Zinc, and their heavier magnitudes including gold. Conductors, electrical, durable. Of shells. Types 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 apparently do not have known higher magnitudes in cultural media.

6 Capricornus as 6C Carbon, formed in stars by He3 resonating in heat (see Tarot trump 6, Lovers, as three women). In mineral oil and coal, deep seams (ingress /egress); in biology bonds (tree, satyr, double-headed). Versatile life-seed. Of minerals, oil, coal flesh.

7 Sagittarius as 7N Nitrogen, 78% of air. Of atmosphere (lungs, air bag)

7g Galactic Centre at the Nitrogen-Oxygen transition. Of atmospheric change and evolution.

8 Scorpius as 8 O Oxygen, usually in O2 bonds. Ozone O3 is made by ultraviolet. Shields red and yellow, allows blue. Most abundant element. Of corrosion, and of typology (see the model below).

9 Scorpius as 9F Fluorine, hyper-calcification (bent forward), lethal, but trace elements strengthen bones (strength feat, or with a pillar). Of teeth.

10c Cista Lid as Fluorine-Neon transition, gas to bone? Of mutation.

10 Libra as 10Ne Neon, inert gas. In glass. Formed by 11Na Sodium? Outer shell a cube of touching circles, with electrons at most of the twelve touch-points, forming a squared circle. Of shapes.

11 Virgo as 11Na Sodium, in compounds and organisms. Strives to be 10Ne Neon (cube). With 17Cl, sodium forms salt. Crucial for land animals, lost in sweat and urine. In seafood, celery, vegetables. Of salt and gestation.

11p Galactic Pole between Sodium and Magnesium, Life and sea. A grail type.

12 Leo as 12Mg Magnesium. Of corrosion and sea (currents, heart).

13 Leo as 13Al Aluminium. Matrix for ceramics and metals. Of oxidisation, soil, inversion, death.

14c Cista Head as Aluminium to Silicon. Of conglomeration, soil to rock.

14 Cancer as 14Si Silica; of clay and rock (time, alchemy). Tarot trump 14, Time, shows an elastic current between two jugs.

15 Gemini as 15P Phosphorus; Of urine (bladder, fluid bag)

15:00 Gemini as weightless, free electrons, lower or infinte magnitude of 15. Indestructible elements of creation. Linked to atoms (bag with up to seven electron shells), by bonds (rope). Of material re-creation.

15g Gate, between Phosphorus and Hydrogen /Sulphur; H>S, P>S. Of occasional impacts and ice floods.

16 to 21;  See 1:16, 2:17, 3:18, 4:19, 5:20 and 5:21 above.

Elemental properties reveal some of their structural logic in various ways, just as character attributes in myth, art and buildings do. Abstract logic such as mathematics and string theory could describe invisible elements, as it did by predicting 2He Helium before its discovery in the sun and stars, by its spectral fingerprint, and eventual isolation by technology.

Intervals of matter are named ‘periodic’, while intervals of energy are named ‘quanta’. The universe oto-manifests, by continually transforming matter, energy, space and time into one another. Culture is equally ‘emergent’, thus perpetually original, despite its apparently ‘cumulative’ styling. When crossing the gaps between stable isotopes of matter, particles shed or absorb light of predictable wavelengths. Likewise, visual archetypes transform by shedding and adopting traits, such as postures, functions, tools, or species. Some of these properties are described in the stoneprint list, its sequence, its frequencies of probability, its spacing as pairs of opposites, and its tri-polar features. Our conscious minds rebel against the implications of quanta, and the thought that energy forms have internal structure (Connell 2016). Likewise there is no apparent cause for the pervasive structure in cultural media; or for close structuralist correspondences between different media; or for cultural modelling on invisible aspects of natural structure. Our conscious mind also rebels against evidence of its exclusion from our vast range of subconscious behaviour.

Atomic numbers reveal base-16 math

Abstract qualities such as quantity, thus number, also express archetypal structure, involving a series of scales, more complex than a sequence of addition, but rather similar to the progression of electron shells. The search for the inherent properties of prime numbers has occupied mathematicians for centuries (assuming that composite numbers are sufficiently explained by their factors). In a disputed and unproven hypothesis, Riemann assumes that zeros all have the same value, but that they lie at somewhat irregular distances from one another, due to intervening prime numbers. Atomic number properties based on pairs of positrons and electrons (see above) demonstrate by their shells and optional interactive properties that nature does not count by nine numbers, or base-10, as in the modern decimal system; but by 15 numbers, or base-16, with certain intervening features that may account for the irregularity of the number of prime numbers between zeros. A mathematical view of atomic prime numbers may include this table of the first magnitude of base8, and part of the first magnitude of base16:

01 02 02c 03 04 04p 5a 5b 06c 06 07 07g  (first eight types)

|  |   |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   | (pairs of opposites)

08 09 09c 10 11 11p 12 13 13c 14 15 15g  (second eight types)

|  |   |  |  |   |  |   |...? (opposites across magnitue)

16 17c 17 18 19 19p 20 21...? (higher magnitudes of 01 to 5b)

The table is based on pairing 1 to 8 with 9 to 15 (thus base7/8), after the properties of elements, which are best tabulated as a spiral (as many chemists do), around an axial grid:

001 02 02c 03 04 04p 5a 5b 06c 06 07 07g (left to right)

          >|<  (axial grid between ‘opposite’ numbers)

15g 15 14 13c 13 12 11p 11 10 09c 09 08 (right to left)

            >|<  (axial grid across magnitudes)

16 17 17c 18 19 19p 20 21...etc? (left to right, overlap)

In base8, the first zero is used at 8, but this base is probably chiral, or only half of the natural, cultural and thus probably archetypal set of base16, which includes the first true or ‘neutral’ zero as a lower magnitude of 15. The first magnitude of base16 runs from 16 to 23, but the cultural ‘periodic’ table stops at 21, equated with the fugitive element Scandium. Heavier elements have more isotopes, and more extra neutrons, probably requiring another adjustment to the archetypal model. The addition of a repeated number between 5 and 6 may seem random, however the distribution of some prime numbers require formulae involving quadratic numbers (factors of themselves), with the added adjustment of “plus 1” or “minus 1”, thus a single displacement, as if one of the lower numbers were sometimes doubled, or sometimes absent (see a discussion of optionality, indeterminism and Schroedinger’s cat, at the scale of proton particles, below). Some quadratic equations have more primes along their intervals than others; and some of the intervals are displaced by one number. Thus a series of one-number loops, similar to the insertion of 5b, may reveal an aspect of natural order, or a translation between pure number and matter-energy, or perhaps time (which is a ‘period’ in another dimension, involving a different kind of ‘zero’).

Prime numbers (2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 67 71 73 79 83 89 97 101 103 107 109 113 127 131 137 139 149 151 157 163 167 173 179 181 191 193 197 etc), could be multiplied with one another to produce any number at all, according to an obscure mathematical proof.

001 MAGN M     016 4x4  M     032 8x4  M     048 8x6  M

002 1+1  M+    017 pr   pr    033 11x3 prxx  049 7x7  prxx

003 pr   pr    018 9x3  pr+   034 17x2 prx   050 10x5 prx

004 2+2  M++?  019 pr   pr    035 7x5  prxx  051 17x3 prxx

04p  +>x  x     x   x    x     x   x    x     x   x    x

005 pr   pr    020 5x4  prx   036 6x6  ,     052 13x4 prx

5b= LOOP L===  021 7x3  prxx  037 pr   pr    053 pr   pr

006 3x2  prx   022 11x2 prx   038 19x2 prx   054 27x2 prx

007 pr   pr    023 pr   pr    039 13x3 prxx  055 11x5 prxx

07g  base b     b   b    b     b   b    b     b   b    b

008 4x2  m     024 8x3  m     040 10x4 m     056 14x4 m

009 3x3  prxx  025 5x5  prxx  041 pr   pr    057 ,    ,

010 5x2  prx   026 13x2 prx   042 7x6  prx   058 29x2 prx

011 pr   pr    027 pr   pr    043 pr   pr    059 pr  pr

11p x>X  X     X   X    X     X   X    X     x   x    x

012 6x2  ,     028 7x4  prx   044 11x4 prx   060 10x6 ,

013 pr   pr    029 pr   pr    045 9x5  prxx  061 pr   pr

014 7x2  prx   030 6x5  ,     046 23x2 prx?  062 31x2 pr

015 5x3  prxx  031 pr   pr    047 pr   pr    063 21x3 prxx

15g BASE B     B   B    B     B   B    B     B   B    B

In base6/7, prime numbers all appear in only two columns (7 13 19 31 etc, and 5 11 17 23 and so on), but this base is probably not used in nature, and thus an artificial abstract. Tabulated in a spiral, some diagonal lines cross many primes (up to twelve in succession, before crossing a non-prime number), others have fewer such alignments. Thus a series of potential or broken squares appear in a geometric version of numbers. The common assumption that the distance between successive numbers are equal, may be incorrect. Broken squares may be a clue that the fifth number (or the 20th or 21st) is different from the first four. It may partly cross into a new magnitude, as 8 and 16 do. I Ching (Book of Changes) numerology does the same, with its bases of two, four, eight; and ultimate cycle of 64 (yet 3, the first real prime number, is a factor in how abstract quantities manifest in nature, as demonstrated by the trigrams and hexagrams). The I Ching also hints that numbers are not all equally standardised, in offering pre-heaven and later-heaven versions of the initial eight trigrams. Likewise, the modern musical scale is modulable since the distance between all the tones and semi-tones are artificially forced to be numerically equal, against our natural inclination to hear, sing and play scales with some unequal spacings, as in Greek modes, or bagpipe flutes. Modern time is also artificially standardised, while nature and life is keyed to cycles that fluctuate with the seasons, tabulated by interlocking ovals and spirals, instead of circles. If numbers are artificial entities, we should apply them to nature with due care. They may differ from natural numbers in their values and thus in their fractions.

Numbers are everywhere. Nature abhors a vacuum, as Aristotle said of biology. The same applies to abstracts. Numbers use fractions, magnitudes, and various other functions to fill in all the dimensions of visible and invisible spaces, matter, energy and time. Numbers are the best tools we have for exploring beyond the corners of our limited conscious perception. Crop circles are among the many demonstrations of apparently infinite visible results, from invisible structure based on apparently finite elements. Nature demonstrates, in some of her expressions of archetype, that geometry better describes the underlying reality. Geometry is capable of describing ‘infinite’ fractions that numbers could only approximate.

Biological levels of scale (anti-clockwise): Four amino acids combine in pairs with their opposites, as rungs in a double helix, forming genes, which are wound up into nucleosome discs, forming histones, woven into chromosomes, clustered in nuclei, of cells, in organs, in bodies, in species, in ecosystems that re-express archetype.

 

 

A table of archetypal structure in nature and culture. There are sixteen archetypes (some with two magnitudes), in pairs of opposites, in sequence, which each have optional attributes, allowing variant expressions, in several media, including behaviour, of people, in cultures, in societies, of humans, in ecosystems that re-express archetype.

Biological scale of spirals and ladder rungs

The scale of magnitude in biology resembles the layers of cultural structure: amino acids=archetypes; pairs=pairs; genes=sequence; nucleosomes=optional attributes; histones=variants; chromosomes=media; nuclei=behaviour; cells=people; organs=culture; bodies=societies. Both systems function in ecosystems that re-express archetype.

Living organisms consist of sequences of combinations of four amino-acids (Guanine, Cytosine, Adeninie and Thymine), arranging themselves as pairs of opposites (G v C, and A v T), forming ‘rungs’ on a spiralling ‘ladder’. Sections of this ‘ladder’ form genes, which in turn from larger units in cell nuclei. Some crop circles express sections of biological shapes, including the illusion of perspective, hinting at longer vertical structures, as if their bio-chemical shapes extended from below ground into the sky (somewhat like the dynamic energy beams that Freddy Silva proposed as physical causes of crop circles).

Artworks and building sites express this structure in left- or right-handed versions, sometimes both, in the form of two adjacent and mutually ‘geared’ stoneprints. In nature, some composite atoms occur in left-handed or right-handed forms. Nature prefers left-handed forms, but she allows some ‘mirrored’ forms, for example, oranges versus lemons.

Bio-chemistry expresses complex natural structure

Bio-chemistry is a structuralist science, enabling technology to reach into the machinery of nature to switch mutations on or off (however traits result from multiple switches, making it easier to damage an organism than to improve it). Traditional husbandry mimics environmental factors to prompt natural mutation. Nature offers various signs (named signatures in esoterica) of how the multi-layered machine works. Some prodigies have seen visions of a double helix (as in some Jiroft carvings), millennia before Francis Crick and James Watson deducted a ball-and-stick model of the double helix ladder of DNA. Most people, including scientists, see the maturity cycle of material culture as ‘evolution’ in cognitive ability or consciousness, which it is not. Building methods have changed since Gobekli Tepe, about BC 8500 (see Stoneprint p140 -162), but our bodies, minds, behaviour, and societies have not ‘evolved’ in the intervening 10 000 years. We intuitively use abstract ‘concepts’ in many media, such as building, art, language, and ritual. Nature does the same, but all ‘abstractions’ are merely by-products of the interaction of natural properties. Strings of four-acid sequences enable and maintain our intimate features and qualities, from organs to health, as well as our optional (expressed or recessive) and superfluous qualities, such as appearance; and half the optional qualities of each child. The layers of biology, with its optionality at every turn, enable mutation, and incidentally camouflage the standard structure of nature. Life seems to hinge on alternating discs of hexagons and pentagons, or rather fourteen-sided and twelve-sided polygons, as of mud and collagen molecules (Temple 2003). These molecules self-replicate (the main agenda of life, which some GM plants are artificially deprived of). Crick and Watson were not more evolved people than medieval alchemists, or Babylonian architects, or Ice Age hunters. They just applied layers of abstract shapes and processes to the invisible mechanisms of self-replicating organisms, like alchemists have always done, and happened to have had a receptive audience. Our ‘own’ works are as naturally and elegantly (or simply) structured, as the works of nature are. Like nature exercises her options without thinking, so we re-express natural structure mostly by our subconscious faculties. Bio-chemistry reveals that self-replication, and narrow ranges of variety driven by mutation, sustain species. Nature rewards species that express a moderate stock of variety, as alternative options against other competing (and also mutating) species; and against potential habitat change such as Ice Ages, volcanic ash, or diseases. And nature rewards species that explore and exploit changing ecological opportunities. This repertoire of mutation also finds expression in the apparently endless variety of crop circle ‘designs’.

Protons consist of six optional quarks (up/down, charmed/strange, top/bottom); six optional leptons (e/Ve, mu/Vmu, t/Vt); and four optional forces (z/w, y/g. Image after Physicsforme). The sixteen kinds of particles and/or waves, resemble the archetypal set of sixteen characters in chemistry, myth, ritual, art and building sites.

 

 

The standard proton model of particles and/or waves, shows t-b as opposites, and c-s as near opposites. Swopping the two ‘arms’ around, pairs up t-Vt, z-w and y-g as the opposites they are. Swopping the mu lepton with part of the z force, spaces mu-Vmu as opposites, leaving only u-d and e-Ve placed as adjacents. Structuralist analysis confirms the pairs of conditions, and suggests some changes to the nuclear table.

Atomic particles express twelve types and three poles

Pairs of opposites in cultural media, find a parallel in the two sets, or ‘limbs’, of sub-atomic particles in the proton. The standard scientific model indicates a northern and southern hemisphere, flanking the predicted Higgs boson, which represents elusive gravity, or a universal instantaneous force.

A simple flip of either the northern or southern ‘arms’ of the standard particle table, produces six pairs of opposites, thus a set of twelve particles or forces. Three kinds of sub-atomic particles, being quarks, forces and leptons, correspond with the cosmic abstracts of ecliptic, celestial, and galactic equators (or their three sets of poles, each with a north and south). Nuclear forces involve acceleration and rotation, similar to solar systems and galaxies. The geometrical ‘fabric’ of space, mass, energy and time, is indispensable to physics, and to perception, and thus to nature and culture. Motion separates distinct (periodic or quantised) clods of matter into stars, like poles and peripheries separate the basic set of characters that enable myth, ritual, artworks and building sites.

If chirality (left- and right handed versions) exist at atomic level, some atoms may be twisted clockwise around the Higgs boson, others anti-clockwise; or the energies involved may be polarised, or changed differently. These abstract properties are incidentally expressed in many crop circles.

Physics, a structuralist science, is far ahead of structuralist anthropology in its math and geometry, and in its research budgets (imagine cultural research with resources equal to the Large Hadron Collider, with its worldwide computing and analysis network).

Schrodinger explained the optionality of proton particles, as similar to a random events generator in a box with a cat. Quarks have three uncertain options (up/down, charmed/strange, top/bottom); leptons have three (e/Ve, mu/Vmu, t/Vt); and forces have two (z/w, y/g), allowing many configurations of the proton ‘cat’. Particles resemble the 16 archetypes, each with about four optional attributes, thus still more possible configurations.

 

 

 

 

Barley ear on a coin. Grains have a standard average length and volume, enabling direct trade metrology. Coins standardise indirect or abstract trade.

Physical scale of sand grains, corn ears, light beams

Human reflexology reflects natural structure in lymph node links between body organs, irises and palms. Some crop circles express the same structure as human reflexology, by abstract shapes of body ‘chakras’ (wheels, or nodes). These formations are ambiguous with planets (see the solar system scale level above), for the same reason: all media express aspects of archetypal structure. Esoteric crafts attempt to tap into archetypal structure by mimicking natural structures.

Wheat stalks and grains, at the level of ‘digital’ texture in crops, are inextricably bound to weights and measures. A sufficiently large number of barley grains are on average the same length, volume and weight (slight fluctuations over centuries appear to have been uniform worldwide. See references relevant to grains below). Wheat species formed the basis of trade, exchange, and metrics itself, since Sumerian time (Knight and Butler 2010. Also the Babylonian building projects chapter in Stoneprint, p177 -194). The bushel of the modern era derives from grain. Thus organic compounds standardises metrics and aspects of culture. Crops include sodium (see 11Na in the table above), in compounds, organisms and salt (which was also a standard of exchange. Salt bars were a form of coinage, from which we retain the word ‘salary’). Sodium expresses type 11 Virgo, typical of gestation (see Tarot trump 11, Justice, a woman with scales to account for intangible values such as behaviour). Metrics also used average dimensions of human bodies (ells and feet), and recently fractions of average earth dimensions (metre). Now in the global technology era, standards are based on the wavelength of a specific colour of light, and on the electro-magnetic energy in an electron (by measurable changes of resistance in a metal conductor), and on the weight and a certain number of atoms of silica (see 14Si in the table above, typical of clay and rock). Silica expresses type 14 Cancer, typical of time and alchemy (see Tarot trump 14, Time, an angel with an elastic current or silica glass between two jugs). The proverbial ear of corn, beam of light, and grain of sand, still standardises the world at the scales of nature critical to life. The metric mills may grind even finer yet as we develop tools to measure the minute but multiplied forces in atoms.

Grains standardise length, volume, weight, food and beverage

A Grain is one of the earliest standard units to measure length, weight and volume. At  0.065g, or 1/7000 pound avoirdupois, it unifies the apothecary system and troy system. Any substantial number of  dry wheat or other edible grain kernels from the middle of the ears, could be designated as a standard. The Sumerian shekel weight was 180 wheat grains. The British Troy system included a pennyweight (24 grains), an ounce (20 pennyweights), and a pound (12 ounces). The name may derive from the market city of Troyes in France, or from the former name of London, or from England as a triangular island (as Julius Caesar noted, probably from classical maps).

Three barleycorns end to end, at 2.54 cm, were the basis for the medieval English inch. British silver penny sterling was 32 wheat grains. The Metric grain of 50mg is used to weigh precious stones. The USA Mint adopted the Troy pound for coinage in 1828.

Crop formations express abstract and thus archetypal standards, in the form of shapes and numbers, that invariably include some crystalline, chemical, and biological shapes. Thus the grain fields where the imprints appear are canvases of the sources as well as the products of universal standards, or natural expressions of eternal archetype. The Greek term derives from ‘arche’ (ancient or eternal) and ‘tupos’ (imprint), conveniently visible in every year’s harvest. Mutation is as much part of nature, and her various art forms (such as feather and skin colours), as it is of culture (such as coinage).

All cultures artificially germinate grains into sprouts, by applying moderate moisture and heat, usually in a heap, cavity or cistern, at about 13 degrees C (55̊ degrees F, or room temperature) for two to three days; then spreading out to germinate; then drying. Malting produces various enzymes, including diastase, which converts starches into sugar. Maltose sugar partially digests or brews grain into baby food, bread or beer, among the hallmarks of civilisation, and integrated with more detailed calendars and more abstract rituals.

Human scale of reflexes

Parallel to levels of scale in natural matter and chemical ‘behaviour’, are levels of scale in natural and cultural organisms, including their behaviour.

Species each exploit a particular ecological niche, and a place in the food chain. Some species are part of an archetypal hierarchy (types 1/2 bovid or avid, 3 reptilian, 4p equid or piscid, 5 hominid, 6 caprine, 12/13 feline, 15 human). Some crop circles express speciation by abstract mimic of typical postures (such as a dolphin, shark, or colibri).

Human iris reflexology chart (after Bernhard Jensen, with typological labels and axial grid by ED Furter). There is a similar structure in our outer and inner ear-lobes, and a quartered structure among our teeth.
Palm reflexology chart (after Accuview, with typological labels and axial grid by ED Furter).

Landscape scale of stems on fields

Crop circles are rare ‘natural culture’ events requiring a specific combination of chalk geology, groundwater, earth-sun magnetic, electro-static or microwave energy layers; and crops evenly spaced by man or machine. They depend on accumulation of survey or aerial photographic records and mass printing media to reach our consciousness. Their semi-regular geometry and emblematic format invite conscious interpretation. Their structuralist interpretation became possible only after discovery of natural and cultural structuralist analysis in 2010 (Furter 2014), first applied to crop formation clusters in 2017. Crop circles are not an open book, but the express meanings more calibrated than culture, as eternal as geometry, and as digital as mass technology.

Life occupies many scale levels

Human behaviour, and thus culture, is closely modelled on archetypal structure. The results are best demonstrated in artworks (Furter 2014) and building sites (Furter 2016). Among the expressions of natural structure that bridge nature and culture, are liver map or iris divination, where part of the body is the canvas (Stoneprint p99 -114); geoglyphs where landscape is a cultural canvas (Stoneprint p328 -334); or cosmology, calendar, myth, ritual or crafts such as astrology, alchemy, emblem sets, or kabbalah, where abstract structure in space, time and concepts are the canvas. Some crop formations express this nature-culture interplay in shapes resembling geometry, plants, species, artworks, emblems, characters, building plans, temples, pyramids and towers. Crop circles offer a rare natural medium with many parallels to cultural media, despite its contamination by fakes. Or perhaps enhanced by inspired fake formations.

Wheat extracts gold from soil

Biological scale includes ecosystems filled with genera and species, each in a ‘periodic’ niche defined by the possibilities of bio-chemistry, climate, and one another. Changes in climate and environment coax an endless range of variations from DNA, as Darwin found by studying organisms such as vegetables, barnacles, finches and fancy pigeons. Humans exploit mutational variety by artificial selection of fruit, grain and stock species. The oldest records of husbandry are in eastern Turkey, where edible grains survived the Ice Age, and at nearby Gobekli Tepe, where images of at least one sheep and three cattle are among the wild species engraved in relief on T-shaped pillars (see the Ice Age chapter in Stoneprint). Even today, in the era of laboratory patented seeds and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), some uses of flora and fauna, and the bacteria that transform elements such as phosphorus and nitrates into nutrients for plants, are still being discovered and turned into technology (sometimes with dire consequences, such as nitrate toxification, as penalties for working against nature).

The South African Department of Trade and Industry experimented in 2016 with extracting gold from wheat, grown in soil containing gold ore. They seek economic viability in using wheat grain for food, wheat waste for heating, and recovery of residual gold at low grades, below the reach of coarser chemical processes.

Crop circles are known to require specific geological conditions, including chalk, groundwater, and microscopic particles of magnesium, typical of former sea-beds or marine deposits. Crop circle areas, including those in England, France, Italy and the Americas, also contain traces of gold, as does former sea-beds. The unique ability of wheat to absorb gold, adds another metal to the crop circle equation.

Alloy of 81% gold and 19% silicon melts at 363 ˚C. At 600˚C, under the thin layer of gold, a weak spot in the silicon dioxide base allows gold-silicon reaction, spreading (dark gray) until surface tension opens a zone of silicon dioxide, around a small square of gold-silicon alloy. The eventual droplet diameter (black) is about 30 micrometers. The alloy square moves to the centre.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A gold-silicon alloy droplet breaks up to leave a bare circle of silicon oxide (left). The small central square of gold-silicon alloy (middle), is the top of a droplet in the silicon crystal base, where low-energy planes in regrown silicon form a small inverted pyramid (right). A similar process may cause crop circles on a larger scale.

 

 

 

 

One of the variations of theoretical ‘trumpet lightning, drawn by an Oxford chemist in the 1600s, is a square in circle (Prof Robert Plot, LLD; A Natural History of Staffordshire, 1686). Plot was a contemporary of Isaac Newton.

Gold-silica alloy forms micro circles with square pegs

The Molecular Foundry at the USA Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory experimented in 2009 with layers of gold, just nanometers (billionths of a meter) thin, over a silicon oxide base. When heated and cooled on a flat silicon surface, “peculiar features expanded and changed” through various patterns, ending up as a field of circles a few nanometres in diameter, each with a square in the centre. The lab noted that the microscopic structures resembled crop circles (Physical Review Letters,  http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i9/e096102).

When two solids are combined in just the right proportions, changes in chemical bonding may produce an alloy that melts at a temperature far lower than either could melt by itself. Such alloys are ‘eutectic’, or ‘good melting’, after a Greek metallurgy term. An alloy of 81% gold and 19% silicon (AuSi) is used in making nano-scale semi-conductors, such as nano-wires, to connect devices in circuits. It melts at only 363˚ Celsius (while gold melts at 1064°C, and silicon at 1414°C). Gold-silicon alloy can solder chip layers together, or form microscopic wires by flowing into channels in the substrate, without damaging surrounding material, said Berkeley Lab’s Junqiao Wu.

The finding may support theories that crop circles are part of the effects that natural microwave bursts have on crop stem nodes or ‘knuckles’.

Wu said silicon nano-wires could be grown from beads of alloy, by adding tiny droplets of gold. Alloy beads prompt silicon to deposit from a chemical vapor, and ‘ride’ on top while it lengthens into ‘whiskers’.

At micro scale level, the ratio of surface area to volume increases. Nano-scale structures have large surfaces compared to their material mass. Berkeley Lab started with a substrate of silicon (similar to the earth mantle), then a thin barrier of silicon dioxide (similar to earth crust), then a layer of gold (similar to gold traces in crops). Heating the layers for a few minutes cause natural pinholes in the silicon dioxide barrier to enlarge. Alloy forms at the pinholes, replacing part of the gold layer with droplets, which grow and break up into yet smaller droplets, leaving bare flat circles of  silicon dioxide, each with a small square of gold-silicon alloy in the middle (similar to some crop circle formations, see Windmill Hill crop circle type 4. See the 1686 illustration of a ‘sky trumpet’ with a square interior tube above). The thinner the gold layer, the faster the alloy droplets break up, and the faster the bare circles expand. The diameter of a bare circle is always equal to the length of a side of the alloy square, to the power of 3, divided by two (for example, a square with sides of 4 units, forms in a circle of 4x4x4 =64, /2 =32 units diameter). As they cool, the squares leave small inverted pyramids of gold in the silicon dioxide ‘crust’. One of the factors is silica’s rectangular crystal lattice (see clips at http://youtu.be/c1v_uL9gzBU or http://youtu.be/PfuMkaWvtyk or  http://youtu.be/9gJYfvTyuJY).

Most silicon is oxidized into silica

Pure silicon is rare, but common in oxidized form, as in silica. Silicon’s electron shells are 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2, thus able to remove four electrons to form a +4 charged cation; or to share these electrons to form four covalent bonds. Pure silicon is metalloid, with mineral and metal properties. Silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2) is protected by its outer oxide layer, and thus largely inert. Yet it reacts with fluorine even at ambient temperature, or with concentrated alkalis. Pure silicon is a semiconductor, also used in computers. Silica does not conduct electricity, since it lacks free electrons. Silica’s sulphur and oxygen atoms form a more elaborate crystal structure than silicon’s lattice. Each sulphur atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms. Silica is abundant in earth crust, and in bones, cartilages, nails, tendons, teeth, skin and blood vessels. It is naturally present in water, carrot, wheat, rice, banana, raisin, and other foods, thus relevant to wheat and to crop circles. When molten and cooled at a certain rate, silica forms glass. This element of transformation is subconsciously expressed in emblematic form in Tarot trump 14, Time, as a flow of either molten glass or electricity between two jugs.

Southern England geology map, indicating that crop circles of 1993 to 1998 closely match arable chalk, greensand and fissure flow aquifer groundwater areas, minus urban areas (after Northcote 2003).
Southern England crop circles of the 1990s closely match groundwater areas (grey. After Silva 2002).
Northcote’s rough distribution map of 100 crop circles of 2002, using Vigay’s list of nearby towns and fields. Northcote noted a correlation with prehistoric mounds, and arable land, but ignored geology, which corresponds much better with crop formation distribution.

Crop circle theories

Several theories attempt to explain the materials and energies involved in crop formations. In the 1600s to 1800s, theories focused on known energies; whirlwind, lightning, meteoritic tektites. Theories became more complex as the data did. The number of formations have increased in recent decades, and so have fakes, hoaxes, pranks, graffiti and advertising logos, in an apparently symbiotic relationship. Fakes are made near natural circles, often apparently in collusion with nature (see the note on compulsive inspiration by Colin Andrews below, and the comment by the best known crop circle makers, Doug and Dave below), sometimes interfering with natural expression of structure (see the ‘extra’ formations in scenic positions in the structuralist analyses of two field clusters). Crop circles are relevant to the study of nature and culture, and thus to sciences such as psychology, structuralist anthropology, and art history, since they appear in clusters that take some years to complete, just as building sites do.

Geo-chemical formation theories

Soil containing chalk and green-sand (a mixture of sandstone and green earth), hold much groundwater. This combination is the common denominator between sites of frequent formations. Southern England’s aquifer, the deepest in the world, is alkaline from chalk, and piezoelectric, thus building up electrical charge in water under pressure. Crop formations tend to appear over aquifers, ponds, wells, underground tanks and shallow groundwater, but the energy involved may spring from deeper below the surface. In dry summers, as in 1989 and 1990, crop circles appeared closer to the edge of the aquifer, where patches of groundwater were more isolated.

Most of England has a shallow layer of small fossilised sea creatures, each with a tiny speck of magnesium that once enabled them to orient to the earth’s magnetic field. This ‘canvas’ could be energised by groundwater.

Chemical elements in soil and crops include (listed by number of protons):

00 electrons in bonds or free, or in spontaneous manifestation and disappearance (part of Heisenberg’s atomic uncertainty principle);

01H hydrogen 2H2;

06C carbon12, formed in stars by 2He3 resonating in heat;

07C2 carbon14;

07N nitrogen in 78% of air (nitrate levels rise in formation soil, a natural fertiliser requiring high electrical charge to form);

08 O, oxygen, usually O2, or O3 made by ultraviolet from lightning, or in compounds typical of dry soil;

09F fluorine in trace elements causing calcification;

10H2O water;

10Ne neon formed by 11Na sodium, its crystal a cube of touching circles;

11Na sodium in organisms, with 17Cl chorine it forms salt;

12Mg magnesium;

13Al aluminium;

14Si silicon (a semi-conductor metalloid, some as +4 charged cations, some in four covalent bonds, some oxidised);

15P phosphorus;

17Cl chlorine, with 11Na sodium it forms salt;

19K potassium in compounds and organisms;

28NaCl salt, cubic crystals, electrical conductor in solution;

30 SiO2 silica or silicon dioxide, an electrical insulator, with sulphur and oxygen4 in elaborate crystals, reacts with 9F fluorine and alkalis such as chalk);

Au gold, some in AuSi alloy.

Dehydration theories

Dry, hard, powdery or crunchy soil is typical of crop circles, even in irrigated rice paddies, while soil outside formations tend to be moist and sticky. Insects or animals who do not escape in time, are dessicated or mummified during crop formation. A flattened porcupine was reported. Flies have been found flash-burnt and stuck to stalks. A malty smell was noted, perhaps from selectively heated plant nodes. A clump of ‘carbon’ or perhaps fermented plant material was noted in one circle. Oak leaves facing a crop circle changed to autumn yellow, indicating that the plant sugar had fermented, as milk does after lightning. A jelly-like substance was found in and near two crop circles in 1991. In sound farming, corn exposed to certain frequencies resulted in higher heat in soil, and a slight burnt appearance in plants. Dehydration causes oxygen atoms to deplete, soil composition and radiation to fluctuate. Soil in formations shows variations in alpha radiation, from 27% below average to 198% above.

Innoculation theories

Crop yield in formations could increase up to 40% for several years. Malkowski (2000) noted that microwaves innoculate crops and seeds. He theorised that granite radiators were used in Egypt, Ethiopia and Ireland (in round towers) to amplify and radiate natural and artificial microwaves. Pressure pulses from gravity water pumps below some pyramids may have induced microwave bursts into granite chambers and beams above chambers. Crop yields have a close relationship with light, sound and electro-magnetic frequencies. Crops in formations remain productive. The energy imprint lingers for up to five years.

Crops symptoms

Bending of corp stems at nodes, occurs in a few seconds or minutes. Bends could be in any direction. Often stalks are bent in several layers, each in different directions, with some woven in a pattern. Fake physical bends always occur between nodes. Natural bends are always on stalk nodes, which normally give stems their strength. Nodes also gather moisture, aiding in rigidity. In formations, some nodes are quickly dehydrated by heat, some with holes where steam escaped. Nodes are bent selectively, most often at the lowest knuckle, but sometimes at different heights in different directions in the same formation. Bent crops look dehydrated, and some cell walls are enlarged, as if by internal heating. Wheat stems vibrate. Bells in a church tower at Avebury rang before the ‘DNA’ spiral of 94 circles was formed.

Plant symptoms are more intense, and ‘designs’ more complex, at the height of the growth season.

Bent stalks rise again, two to seven days after formation, depending on maturity, due to photo-tropism, or sun-seeking. Some crops rise in structured patterns, at selective stem nodes. Roots in crop circles re-align to grow stronger on the side opposite the stalk bends, thus the plants assume S-shapes, instead of the usual concentric Y and inverted Y-shapes.

Crop species

Crop circles from mostly in regularly spaced stalks of barley, wheat, canola, rye and linseed, but also in maize, grass, sorghum, rice, Brussels sprouts, potatoes, sugar beet, strawberries, tobacco, sand and snow. Some trees in Wisconsin and Ontario were affected by unknown energy. Formations are selective, for example, leaving poppies standing among bent crop stalks. Younger plants are sometimes unaffected, thus the energy also discriminates by maturity.

Magnetic fields formation theories

Growing grain has a natural positive charge by day, and a natural charge by night. But grain in crop formations seem to have been discharged, or even negatively charged, as if electrons were added from surrounding crops. Electrostatic measurements revealed that crop left standing inside a formation were coated with a charge of about 10 to 100 volts per square inch.

Earth’s magnetic field shifts 3 degrees to 5 degrees in crop circles, noted Colin Andrews. The Hartmann grid forms a regular net of squares over earth, perhaps resulting from a combination of dynamic earth and sun magnetism, gravity, and atmospheric material. Within this grid, geodetic or telluric lines meander, forming concentric or spiral nodes at crossings, of positive or negative polarity, anticlockwise descending or clockwise upwelling. Both are seen in contra-rotating swirls of some crop circle floors. These earth energy nodes also have radials, like clock faces. Numbers 3, 7 and 11 seem important in geo-magnetic nodes. Magnetic vortices cause EM fields in groundwater. Metal stuck into the soil at the centre of a crop circle, is magnetised. Compasses in crop circles tend to point to the formation centre, instead of to the earth’s magnetic north pole. But the magnetic centre, often marked by a spiral texture, is off-centre to the overall shape of the formation, just as the five polar points are all off-centre to one another (see the star map), and just as their analogous limb joints in artwork designs, or junctures in building site plans are (see the structuralist analyses).

A spinning vortex can generate a magnetic field, especially in saline water that conducts EM energy, and in water in plant stems. Some crop circles have four energy vortices.

Soil samples from the centre of formations, tested by Colin Andrews, yielded up to double the normal electro-magnetic (EM) levels. Military spectrum analysis had detected localised magnetic field disturbances 24 hours before some crop formations. Natural energy fields include electric, magnetic, radio, microwave, ionic, nuclear radiation and moisture signatures, which often disrupt one another. Hovering lights of various colours, notably red or blue, have been reported at formation sites.

Crop formation geometry is slightly irregular

Geometric shapes in crop circles are never exactly regular. Nature favours irregularity regularity. As Leonard Cohen wrote in a song: “There is a crack, a crack in everything, that’s how the light gets in.” Most circles are slightly elliptical, distorted from about 8 inches to about 15 feet, more pronounced on hillsides.

If crop circles are by-products of natural functions, such as the interplay between various levels of energy, matter and time, they incidentally express natural geometry. If the formations are inspiring and beautiful, it is a functional and practical beauty. Artist John Ruskin was mistaken in concluding that “the most beautifully things are the most useless.” Cultural media, such as myth, ritual, art and architecture all express and rehearse some practical functions, including order, some of it camouflaged as decorative flourish. Thus natural and cultural media echo one another in their various purposes and forms, often hidden under their exploration of all the possible varieties of styling.

Animal crop circle symptoms

Animals near potential crop formations are distressed and behave erratically. Birds stop singing. Animals avoid areas where crop circles are about to form, as they also flee from areas about to be struck by lightning. Horses would not cross crop circle perimeters, and become nervous. Sheep and cattle avoid the spot for a year. Dogs become playful or act strangely in crop circles, or mark the energy centres in anxiety by droppings.

Whale and dolphin song themes change over years, much like crop circle themes do. Seen in the context of ecology, crop circle could be a kind of plant-song, a by-product of vegetable life, fulfilling various functions, just as bees, insects, birds, plants, animals and humans all have ideal functions in nature.

Ice Age rock art include about 25 abstract shapes (after Von Petzinger 2016. Graphics after National Geographic. Typological labels by ED Furter). Theses shapes express a set of inherent meanings. Corp imprints express the same range in various combinations.

Corp imprints express the same range in various combinations. Formations may be triggered by disruptions in the natural sun-earth energy field.

Human symptoms in crop circles

Abstract shapes generated by the visual cortex, named entoptics, may result from changes in brain frequencies triggered by dancing, humming, dehydration and social activity. Crop circles seem to be nature’s version of entoptics, in collaboration with human behaviour (including agriculture), just as human entoptics collaborate with abstract aspects of nature, entoptics appear in all art, rock art and artefacts worldwide, including Ice Age cave art). Some researchers in the ‘trance school’ have linked entoptics to migraine headaches (Lewis-Williams 2010).

The onset of symptoms could occur up to 100 feet from the perimeter, and linger after a visit. They resemble radiation sickness: disorientation, vertigo, nausea, headache, dizziness, tingling, various pains. These together indicate Alpha radiation, of electrically charged particles, one of three types of radiation emitted by radioactive substances, but in short bursts, unlikely to damage health.

Ultraviolet (UV) or gamma radiation exposure symptoms were reported by a molecular biologist familiar with it, who visited a Julia Set formation near Stonehenge. He felt lingering nausea, but after some sleep, an intense well-being and mental clarity.

Some people feel compelled to eat seeds from crop circles, feeling sensations of speed, energy, nervousness, flying, electrical interference, deep body vibrations, heat from hands and head and solar plexus, appetite loss and disorientation.

Some feel skull base tension, followed by chest pressure, as of water on lungs. Some prophets, such as Siener van Rensburg, who lived in South Africa near an iron deposit known for electro-magnetic effects, felt skull base pain at the onset of visions, and clasp their hands behind their heads (Raath 2001). Van Rensburg’s visions started with swirling pattern, dissolving into “flowers, cosmos or devils”, then more familiar scenes, often of symbolic shapes: wheels, pits, ladders, doors, animals, people dressed in different colours.

Some people feel only a tickling in the feet, or a ‘sprung floor’ trampoline sensation, and some crunching of dried soil.

Some people feel a sense of deja vu, reminders of something vaguely familiar, in a crop circle. Some studies ascribe this sensation to a small delay in sensory input to the two brain halves, causing a kind of ‘echo’ when the brain halves compare their interpretation of experience twice.

Equipment symptoms in crop circles

Ferrous metals have been magnetised. Tyres have deflated. Electronic devices, mobile phones, cameras and watches have failed. Compasses on airplanes overhead have spun randomly. Credit cards have been wiped clean. Clocks were delayed by several minutes. Time seemed to pass quickly. Shadows cast by some trees could be at odds with others, while the person who noticed this lost half and hour, and regained it when returning to the same spot before or during crop formation. These effects are typical of type 14, Time (see Tarot trump 14, Temperance, as an angel holding a flux between two jugs). In the Arthurian romances, two knights riding across a field on a quest remark that “here, time moves backwards”.  Merlin supposedly lived his life backwards. Time may be governed by gravity, and both remain elusive to science, and doubly so to ordinary consciousness.

Sound frequency theories

Sonic cymatics pioneered by Chladni in the 1770s, demonstrated by sand, particles or liquids on metallic disks, that sound imprints geometric patterns on flat surfaces. The human voice is particularly attuned to imprinting a great variety of patterns on the immediate atmosphere, as measured by a tonoscope. Captured voice patterns change from textures to shapes of flowers such as pansy, primrose, geranium, rose, fern, wheat heads, or trees, more complex at higher pitch. The reverse may apply, in that the range of possible distinctive textures and shapes acted as archetypal shapes that allowed and enabled plants, animals and humans to express these shapes. Hans Jenny (1967) found from photographs that low frequencies tend to form circles, and higher frequencies to form tetrahedra (triangular pyramids, the simplest possible shape with volume of 3D); then mandalas, and the five regular solids. Many of the Jenny photo patterns appear in crop circles, including star fractals. Most human sounds are dynamic in shape. For example, the sacred chant ‘AUM’ forms a circle, that changes into a triangle, then into hexagonal and pyramidal shapes, as in mantra artworks named Sri Yantra in India.

Ultrasound, above our hearing threshold of 20 kHz,can be aimed, focused, reflected. Certain frequencies vibrate certain molecules. The high MHz range, on human mind’s frequencies, affect states of awareness, heals muscular ailments and bone fractures, like sacred sites do.

A 4 kHz high trilling sound, varying between 3.2 kHz to 5.2 kHz, and a low trilling sound from 0 Hz to 500 Hz, is typical of crop circles. These sounds, like birdsong at about 4 kHz, stimulate plant growth and moisture absorption. A 5.2 kHz trill is used in wheat growth acceleration in Canada by Weinberger and Measures . They also happen to be the two frequency curves that bagpipes make, about 4 kHz from the double-reeded pipe (see the Pictish -Dacian connection in Stoneprint Journal 1), and about 400 Hz from the set of upward drone pipes. Our brains in wakeful state operates at about 30 Hz.  Resonances of about 7.8 Hz were found at Delphi, Stonehenge, and the Giza pyramids, on the brainwave pattern of mystics and healers. Some crop formations radiate vibrations rising from 7 Hz to 21 Hz (Giovanni and Jean 2008), known as Schumann resonances, associated with 3D, 4D and 5D densities. Octahedral or doubled pyramidal crystals (as of dense carbon in diamonds), are associated with 7 Hz (see microscopic gold-silica alloy in wheat above). Cubes (as of salt crystals) are associated with 21 Hz.

Infrasound, below our hearing threshold of 30Hz, interacts directly with biological processes, if combined with high pressure, could produce permanent changes in substances, including chromosomes, and thus cause health effects or even mutations. A low oscillating hum caused by two out-of-phase frequencies, at 440 Hz and 460 Hz that seems to jump from ear to ear, like Tibetan bowls used in mediation. F# has been noted to prompt brainwaves into greater receptivity. low Gregorain chants combined with an EM field (said to be produced in cathedrals), stimulate the brain and body’s magnetic field, and brains generate electrical charges 46 times above average, into psychic activity, allowing access to a collective consciousness. Infrasound could atomise water molecules into mist. An Etchilhampton farmer saw columns of mist rising like cannon shot on a dry summer afternoon in 1996, where 13 crop circles connected by a winding avenue appeared. At Findon, West Sussex, steam rose like a series of fountains at 6AM from a 1985 crop circle. Infrasonic vapour cavitation creates pressures of up to 500 atmospheres. Lumps of carbon are sometimes found on the soil. Iron powder was found glazed to stems at an Oldbury Hill Fort formation in 1993. Synthesised amorphous iron does not crystalise as it cools, leaving a powder like a soft ferromagnet, leaving stems attractable by a magnet.

Bursts of music in fields in India caused seeds to sprout in a third of the normal time, yields to increase by 61%, and chromosome count in plants to increase. Indian devotional songs increased stomata (surface pores) by 66%, thickened epidermal walls, caused palisade cells to lengthen up to 50%. Seeds during germination under ten minutes of ultrasound (above 20 kHz), or short bursts of light, showed increased growth. Crops were found to bend towards the metallic vibration of sitar music, at an angle of 60 degrees. Sound also affects the evaporation rate of water.

Radio waves and light formation theories

Radio waves range from about 20 kHz (the upper threshold of hearing) to 300 GHz, with wavelengths from 15km to 1mm (after Illingworth). Below visible light lies infrared (300 GHz to 5x 10_5 GHz; wavelengths 0.8micron to 1mm). Visible light ranges from 3x10_5 GHz to 10_6 GHz (wavelengths 300nm to 900nm). Our eyesight, and the energy for photosynthesis in the leaves of plants, is determined by the range that best bypasses earth’s atmospheric filtering.

Microwave formation theories

Just above the broad spectrum of radio waves (wavelength 15km to 1mm), lie microwaves (1mm to 300mm). Microwaves include the average spacing of crop stalks, raising the possibility of sympathetic vibration, with stalks acting as a kind of antenna or canvas for either sending or trapping natural and man-made microwave energy.

Man-made satellites in earth orbit use microwave beams. Heating stems of wheat with a short intense burst of microwave energy can produce wilting similar to that in a crop circle. Flattened stems often have the bend just below stem-nodes, and also may feature blackened burn holes where steam escaped. Microwave heating is capable of producing these effects. The USA Pentagon’s Star Wars program has a satellite capable of delivering such a microwave beam. However, there were no traces of radiation detected in the crop circles. Crops that were bent by microwaves, showed signs of various radiations and moisture differences, but remain productive.

Mega-Hertz formation theories

Frequencies of 150 MHz to 260 MHz range were recorded in the Silbury Koch fractal formation in 1997, rising to 320 MHz at the centre. At Hackpen Hill nine-crescent formation in 1999, 540 MHz up to 650 MHz was recorded. At Golden Ball Hill in 2000, a background of 180 MHz and lotus circle perimeter frequency of 320 MHz was recorded, with a turn by 90 degrees changing the reading to 170 MHz, indicating directional energy. Alkaline batteries died, while lithium batteries continued working.

Giga-Hertz formation theories

At some formations a specific narrow band of signal interference was measured at 1.5 GHz, only 1Hz broad. The interference had a banding effect about every 6 inches (also within the crop stalk spacing range), as if on an agitated pond. This frequency is typical of a hydrogen gas radio wave, which astronomers use as a carrier wave for interstellar transmissions.

LCD displays such as watches darkened, but when rotated by 90 degrees lit up again, perhaps due to polarisation in of liquid silicon crystal. Camera circuit boards have fried.

The strongest local source of almost all energy frequencies is the sun, filtered by earth’s magnetosphere, atmosphere, moisture and plants, which all could act as lenses. Sun and earth rotate, resulting in stretched vortices of energy, with their wave elements compressed on the incoming leading edges, and extended or stretched out on the trailing edges; as well as on the rotational edges (named Doppler shift, or red- and blue-shift). In earth’s moving atmosphere, magnetosphere and crust, some frequencies may be further retarded, and their particle elements and wave elements may be separated, polarised, or phased. The net result are energy vortices with various textured ‘eddies’, of which crop formations may be horizontal snapshots in the microwave frequency range.

Newton solved some physical riddles

Isaac Newton, mathematician, wrote in his notes (Keynes 1965) of a “Riddle of past and future events… a cryptogram set by the Almighty.” Newton had found evidence of a Bible code that he thought was human encryption of history, not realising that the code was implicit in meaning, language and perception, thus natural and archetypal. Newton “looked on the whole universe and all that is in it, as a riddle which could be read by applying pure thought… clues could be found partly in the heavens and in the constitution of elements… he himself wrapt the discovery of calculus in a cryptogram when he wrote to Leibniz.” (Keynes 1947).  If Newton saw cultural codes as natural laws (several of which he had formulated), he may have codified cultural laws as well. Most researchers who came close to discovering the natural code in human behaviour, including Newton, opted for conspiracy theories, such as a supposed “ancient document and brotherhood”. Psychologists such as Jung, and structural anthropologists such as Levi-Strauss, looked instead for inherent patterns in human nature. The discovery of stoneprint in groups of crop circles (see the reconstruction illustrations), now add evidence that the culture code lies within our conscious reach. If there were revelations “in Babylonia” (or at Gobekli Tepe much earlier around BC 8000), they were lost by the same conscious assumptions that we have to penetrate by number, geometry, deductions and tests, usually prompted by intuition. Newton and others have lifted the camouflage from most natural structures, but human re-expressions remain veiled by our flawed self-image. Structure is the stock in trade of nature, also subconsciously expressed by artists and builders. Yet despite the abundance of ‘code’ in nature and culture, it is our conscious habit to search for inventors and teachers.

Formations in engravings and inspirations

Designs of crop circles were claimed to have been found engraved stones or metal plates buried in the same field, one claimed to have been brought from Mexico. The most notable of these claims is the Grasdorf gold, silver and bronze plates said to have been dug from the symbolic formation field in Germany. More numerous are claims of inspired artworks drawn on the evenings before similar crop formations appeared.

Subconscious human collusion with nature

Colin Andrews (2015) are among the researchers who raised the issue of inspiration versus conscious motivation. “The ratchet design… was manmade, but why? Why did they make that design? And why there? Many unexplained events can surround the making of circles, unknown to the people involved. Sometimes several people are prompted to make formations on the same night, even in the same fields (see my book, On the Edge of Reality). The big question is, What are the implications of human activity, due to non-human [not individual] influence? This is a profound idea… and has huge implications for social structures and beliefs… My first public presentations about these findings were made in 2012, and some of the audience and researchers present ‘got’ it… a non-human [collective] mind influences many humans… The communications are akin to intuitive nudges, subtle, quiet, yet clear and decisive. I would say all-knowing. The ‘chess player’ knows the end game, but makes many seemingly illogical moves… the first people to claim making crop circles said, “It was as if we were being told to make them. We could never quite  understand that feeling” (Doug Bower and Dave Chorley 1991).”  Colin Andrews posted the above on his website in 2015 December 30.

Doug Bower and Dave Chorley said they felt ‘compelled’ to make some crop formations.

Hoaxers, fakers, or agents of nature?

Retirees Doug Bower and Dave Chorley claimed in the early 1990s to have made many crop circles. Mass media and public opinion instantly assumed that the mystery was solved. The topic died in mass media, and was relegated to internet niches. Yet some formations appear in restricted areas, difficult and pointless for pranksters.

Jeremy Northcote (2003) emphasises the cultural context, as if all crop circles were man-made landscape art. He does not even mention geology, and “rules out” natural causes. Northcote wrote: “The area is littered with ancient and modern attempts at what archaeologist Peter Fowler (1995) refers to as “conscious landscape architecture.” The area is well known for the Avebury and Stonehenge monuments, and for burial mounds, long barrows, and of particular relevance to the crop circle phenomenon, its white horse formations carved into hillsides… inspired by the ancient ‘horse’ [or feline] formation at Uffington, just 5km west-south-west of the mean centre of the 2002 crop circles… There is a long history of landscape artistry in Wiltshire that preceded the crop circle phenomenon.” But these statements are all disputable. Northcote finds it “tempting to see the crop circles of Wiltshire as a continuation of this “sacred art” tradition (Fowler 1995)… Sussex also has a local tradition of landscape artistry, featuring the Wilmington Long Man or Giant, and the white horse at Litlington. The concentration of crop circles… seem to relate to what Baldia (1995) found at megalithic tombs in Europe along pilgrimage routes…  crop circles may be produced in sacred areas to appeal to spiritually oriented visitors.” These views are also disputable. Northcote used only 2002 crop circle location data, for about 100 formations, from one source, Paul Vigay’s Independent Research Centre for Unexplained Phenomena (IRCUP). The data did not include map grid positions, thus Northcote used approximate locations based on the names of the fields or nearest towns, within about 3.5 km on average. Despite the small sample, Northcote ignores the clear geological and natural energy correlation, and supports a vague modern Druid tourism theory, based on the location of “ancient” structures which may be post-Roman (Furter 2016), and which also followed geology, at least in terms of arable and populated land. Sciences, in their specialised and fragmented disciplines, do not have adequate data, theories, terminology, or even concepts to study the interaction of natural and cultural structures, including artworks, building sites, landscapes, and crop circles. Mindprint and Stoneprint proposed such tools based on an inter-disciplinary approach involving philosophy, alchemy, chemistry, psychology and structural anthropology. Crop circles have acquired a reputation for being outside the bounds of science, and even for being somehow ‘unscientific’. But the splinter, or the beam, is not in nature or in culture, but in the eyes of science.

Avebury Manor ‘solar system’ crop circle, July 2008 (after Lucy Pringle). In the mid background left is Avebury bank, ditch and stone circle. In the far background is Silbury Hill, an artificial mound.

A solar system crop map fluctuates between sun and earth

Orbs, pendulums and planets are one of the apparent themes in crop circles. Every year a dominant theme seems to guide the abstract and semi-figurative shapes; insects, cubes, spirals, cells, birds, symbols, game boards, and more.

The solar system is nearly a flat plane, since most planets orbit relatively close to the earth-sun orbital plane, named the ecliptic. Maximum apparent deviations north and south of our orbital plane are one or two degrees for the large outer planets and Mars; 3 degrees for Venus; 5 degrees for our moon; and 7 degrees for Mercury. The ‘solar system’ crop circle is an apparent orrery, or model of the planets, but condensed, on a logarithmic scale, as we also have to map the solar system for practical reasons. Several commentators have noted that the relative positions of the ‘planets’ seem to reflect the winter solstice of late December 2012 (astrosociety.org, Alice Enevoldsen), when the Mayan calendar clicked over to zero. There was nothing apocalyptic about that date, or that calendar. The Mayan cultural apocalypse had followed the Spanish conquest about 500 years ago.

This crop impression had appeared in two phases, some days apart. In the second imprint, the central flattened area became larger, overtaking the Mercury orbit. The planets appear in their sidereal positions, or real constellation background on the ecliptic of December 2012 (John Walker; Fourmilab); but some planets apparently reflect their celestial positions, thus their angular distance from the spring equinox, or astrological ‘sign’ positions as seen from earth (Astrosociety). Several contradictions in this map confirm that it is not entirely heliocentric (in sun-centred or ecliptic polar projection). Since the current celestial poles are on the ecliptic meridian between Gemini and Taurus, and between Sagittarius and Scorpius, planets in these four constellations have nearly the same celestial and ecliptic positions (see the star map below). Thus it is nearly impossible to tell by which grid nature expresses planets on and near those constellations. In the imprint (see below), Saturn is in Jupiter’s orbit, perhaps to maintain earth-centred logic. They are nearly opposites, and their axes are close together. The swop may reflect their recent wide separation in celestial declination (north-south); Jupiter was +21 degrees north of the celestial equator, close to the northern tropic, while Saturn was plodding along  -12 degrees south of the celestial equator, near the southern tropic. Most cosmology models, such as armillary spheres, assume that sun and earth are both at the centre. However solar system maps, or orrerys, have to show these as separate points. Astrological maps or horoscopes place earth at the centre, which may swop some outer planets near the earth-sun axis, as they are on this date map. Stoneprint analysis reveals the axial centre to be off the ‘design’ centre, as usual (the same applies to the mindprint in the irises of our eyes. See Stoneprint p102 -103). Thus several factors are causes or effects of swopping Jupiter’s and Saturn’s orbits. The celestial north pole is closer to the Jupiter crop dot than the Saturn crop dot, perhaps ‘bumping’ it outward by celestial projection. Orbital tracks in this crop circle are not without logic if they involve ‘jumps’ between ecliptic and celestial projections; or jumps between quarters of the quite eccentric orbits of the outer planets, from aphelion (nearest the sun), to perihelion (furthest from the sun). Due to their distance, their orbits have more influence on their own ‘seasons’, than their obliquity has (obliquity rules our seasons on earth).

The diffuse blob between 3 Aries and 4 Pisces lies between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn (or Saturn and Jupiter). The white mark is probably chalk, ancient seabed underlying the shallow local soil. Minute magnesium (12Mg) particles in this chalk may act as a lens projecting earth energy, in patterns that express digital pictures by selectively bending crop stems at about knee height (Sylva 2002). Microwaves seem to be involved in the formation of crop circles, some of which have been found to inoculate seeds or soil against crop diseases (Malkowski 2010).

Between types 10 Libra and 11 Virgo, far out, are two blobs; probably not planets but stars, since they are scintillating (twinkling, as stars do, and planets do not). These are in the right positions to express the stars Virgo alpha (alpha Virginis in Latin), named Spica, Corn Ear (remarkable since the canvas consists of crops); and Bootes alpha, Arcturus, Bear Tamer, who in myth is a farmer. Bootes in Egypt is a spearman marking Ages (Bauval 2006). His invisible spear point is currently on the hoof of Ursa Minor, which is the small bull foreleg in Egypt (see the Senmut ceiling in the Early Civilisations chapter). These two blobs are thus explained, but there is no notable star at the opposite blob, between 3 Aries and 4 Pisces constellation, and between the Jupiter and Saturn orbits. However between Aries and Pisces signs always lies a distinctive feature; the moving spring point. The celestial grid moves with the spring equinox, as the first point of Aries sign (not constellation). This point is between Aries sign (now lying over the first 20 degrees of Pisces constellation), and Pisces sign (now lying over the last 30 degrees of Aquarius constellation, see the star map above). Spring currently lies between Pisces and Aquarius constellation, north of the Cetus (Whale) spout and the galactic south pole. The spring point is often marked in art and buildings. But ecliptic spring is on a tramline, labelled [Gs] in the image. The archetypal spring host, Aries constellation, ends at the Medusa head, cut off by the backward-looking Perseus. Astrology identifies it as the star Algol, held in the hand of Perseus. Stoneprint recognises it as type 3 Cista Mystica, labelled [Cis]. It marked the start of Age Aries once, at the spring sun that had since precessed backward from the last point of Aries to the last point of Aquarius, or 50 degrees (now at Gs). The blob could mark the first point of Aries constellation, the anchor point from where the celestial first point or spring moved Aries sign backward through Pisces constellation in the last 2000 years. Could the blob express this interplay, and the theme of the start of a new Age? Astrology takes insufficient account of the interplay between celestial signs (twelve equal slices or concepts of 30 degrees each); and unequally-spaced constellations with their various stars, or ‘Ptolemaic’ astrology. Each planet activates stars in turn by moving through their ecliptic meridians. The blob is opposite the Virgo womb star and Bootes genitals star, that could express the ‘birth’ of Age Aquarius in 2016, eight years after the crop circle. If about 60 other features in this natural map confirm the slow calendar of Ages as part of the ‘meaning’ of a natural ‘picture’, what could we learn here about ‘meaning’ itself? The answer has to involve archetypal structure and its quirks.

Type 14 Cancer in this crop circle is inside a tractor tramline loop, forming a bull foreleg shape (typical of Ursa Minor), that the crop circle imprint enhanced by interior concentric lines. Ursa Minor lies far north of Cancer and Gemini, between the ecliptic and celestial north poles. Type 14 Cancer expresses its usual polar ingress or egress, here far from the axial centre. Its polar decan, Ursa Minor, is a bull foreleg shape, from which hoof the celestial pole would soon precess towards 1 Taurus Auriga. In this natural ground plan, near Ursa Minor lies an oval with eleven lugs and one dot, which may express a polar gauge of precession (see semi-oval lines of stone grinders in Gobekli Tepe House C, marking out celestial precession lines). Type 14 Cancer here also resembles a stone axe or mace. Senmut’s ceiling includes such a shape, also in concentric lines, but over adjacent type 15 Gemini (see the Egyptian section).

Stoneprint analysis identifies that axe-shape as 15 Gemini’s usual mace, and as the brightest star in the sky, Gemini Canis star alpha, Sirius or Dog eye. Sirius is a double star with an oval orbit of about 51 years. All cultures mythologise Sirius as calendric (Robert Temple 1976). Here, the potential ratchet gauge lies on the Gemini axis. Near it is a large, slightly eccentric, concentric lug on the nearly blank ‘moon’ circle. This feature could also express Sirius (see Sirius as a concentric circle in Painted Rock, in the Americas chapter in Stoneprint). Nature and culture do not spell out archetype in conscious terms. Any attempt to impose simplistic conscious logic on natural intelligence would fail. Nature is not talking to us in the personal or conscious sense. We may listen in the synchronistic sense, and try to fathom some of her structural and poetic wisdom, through our plodding conscious minds.

Avebury Manor crop circle, July 2008 (after Galacticconnection.com. Potential planet labels, stoneprint labels, and axial grid by Edmond Furter).

The sequence of archetypes in this natural imprint is (with the universal average frequencies of relevant attributes in brackets):

1 Taurus as Earth? The marker is on the adjacent Mars orbit, perhaps indicating our aphelion or apsis, furthest from the sun, in nearby Gemini (here with a moon or earth orbit diagram near it).

2 Taurus as Jupiter, in the Saturn orbit (twisting). Their transition or conjunction may lie at the blob between 3 and 4

3c Cista Mystica at a minor planet?

3 Aries as a minor planet?

4 Pisces as Uranus, in its ‘house’, in its orbit

5 Aquarius20 as Neptune, in its ‘house’, in its orbit, oblique (more typical of Pluto), outermost (large)

5 Aquarius21 as a minor planet? Or crop damage by visitors

6 Capricornus as Mars, in its orbit, near the centre (ingress/egress). Another Mars at 5, also in a tramline, may be a Mars retrograde marker

7 Sagittarius as Pluto (which may be a moon of Jupiter), in a tramline ‘island’ filled with crops (bag), resembling a lasso or ox goad (rope)

7g Galactic Centre on the tramline island bend. Potential galactic equators are added here (thin white lines), the top one northern, the bottom one southern, as if projected through a transparent star globe. Some artworks trace parts of these equators by limb joints. Some building sites trace part of these equators by roads, paths and streams. Here the galactic equator partly runs along tramlines, which the natural energy field apparently regards as ‘limb joints’ in crop fields.

8 Scorpius as Sun? with a diminishing spiral tail (bent forward), large (often large). The sun may have been at the centre in an initial crop imprint, then enlarged, as it was in the second imprint when it overtook the Mercury orbit (see 10c Cista Lid). This ‘outer sun’ may express the winter solstice, or sunspots (active in 2012), opposite the moon cycle outside 15 Gemini.

9 Scorpius as Saturn, in the smaller Jupiter orbit (bent forward, as the ‘aged’ Saturn is in art), large (often large)

10c Libra Cista Lid at Mercury, in its orbit, a small reversed dot (often a lid shape) in the large flattened crop weave (often a woven texture)

10 Libra as Venus, in its orbit. Libra constellation is indistinct, or pictured in adjacent Bootes over Virgo, where Venus was in December 2012.

11 Virgo also as Venus, her crop dot obliterated by a tramline, or by the expanded Sun of the second crop overprint, thus inside the circle ‘body’ (interior). Virgo contains Bootes, the figure of 10 Libra, since there is not an appropriate gestalt stick figure in its own slice of sky. Venus was in Virgo constellation, south of Bootes, in December 2012. Between 10 and 11, outside the ‘solar system’, are two diffuse grapeshot circles, one on a slight outcrop of white chalk, perhaps expressing Virgo alpha star Spica, ‘Corn Ear’ (a bright white star), and Bootes alpha star Arcturus, Bear-Tamer, herder and farmer.

12 Leo as ? In the central sun ‘body’ (interior, often a platform in buildings)

13 Leo as Moon?, on Earth’s orbit, with a concentric core (interior)

14 Cancer as a tramline loop, which interior concentrics formed into a bull foreleg shape, typical of Ursa Minor in Egyptian iconography. Its constellation lies far north of Cancer, between the celestial and ecliptic poles (see the Senmut ceiling in the Egyptian section). Here it is far out or ‘south’ of the axial grid (ingress /egress).

15 Gemini as Asteroids, in their orbit. They are a string (rope), a former planet destroyed by a comet impact (smiting, mace). Also as an orbit diagram, eleven lugs and a dot on a bag shape (bag)

15g Gate at Canis alpha star Sirius, a large grapeshot circle.

The ecliptic pole or axial centre is unmarked, and away from the design centre as usual. The celestial poles may be on the Earth-Sun axis, placing summer in Taurus 1 and winter in Scorpius 8, as they are since 2016, when the spring equinox entered Aquarius (see the star map above). The conscious layer in this solar system diagram, is partly conscious to us, but ‘subconscious’ to nature. Most of the implications of the diagrammatic picture or map, take patient study to reveal. Ironically, some apparently simple dots on concentric circles, with a few embellishments and textural differences, reveal more archetypal features than most elaborate crop circles do.

Northern hemisphere and adjacent stars, projected around the ecliptic north pole (after Skychart, with celestial poles precessed to 2016. Constellations lines, stoneprint labels and division grid by Edmond Furter).

Cosmology has natural and cultural structure

Cosmology is inevitably a combination of properties of nature, and of our innate perception. The best canvas for cosmology is a sphere, such as the sky, containing three equators and three sets of polar axles (thus six polar points); and random dots to mark space; and moving luminaries to calibrate time. Our inherent compulsion for seeing wholes among potential parts, or gestalt (see the Perception section in the text), invite us to imprint species, functions, myths, rituals and conceptual correspondences on the sky, as it does in art, myth, ritual, and buildings.

Gestalt follows relatively bright stars, and their relative proximity to one another. Our eye-mind-hand co-ordination has almost free reign in the sky. Most of the 28-odd near-ecliptic constellations (in and next to the zodiac), do not have ‘eyes’ on a grid of opposites centred at any pole, as they do in art and architecture. The sky is therefore not a stoneprint, but a good canvas for natural and cultural categories, such as species, characters and concepts. The sequence of archetypal concepts in Western constellations is (with the universal average frequencies of some attributes in brackets):

1 Taurus; horned (bovid); Auriga; Orion (twisting)

2 Taurus; Hyades skull (bovid); Perseus (twisting); Pleiades (cluster)

3c Cista Mystica; Perseus star Algol (Medusa head)

3 Aries; Triangulum (knife), star Hamal, neck (long or bent neck);

Cetus Tail as its body (often a dragon)

4 Pisces; fishes tied; Pegasus square (rectangular)

4p Galactic South Pole; Cetus (Whale) spout (limb joint)

5:20 Aquarius; zebra (varicoloured), or praying mantis (hyperactive), or priest; Pegasus legs (horizontal)

5:21 Aquarius; Same as above (large. Sometimes a tailcoat head)

6c Cista Tail; Capricornus tail knot, in Aquarius (sometimes double-headed)

6 Capricornus; Sometimes caprine. Austrinus (ingress /egress)

7 Sagittarius; Cygnus, Swan, (bag? rope? chariot?)

7g Galactic Centre; River (sometimes water)

8 Scorpius; Tail (long tail); Ophiuchus giant (often large, strength feat)

9 Scorpius; head with claws (strength feat); Hercules who briefly carried earth (bent forward, often with a pillar)

10c Cista Lid; Lupus (Wolf) or Centaurus legs (sometimes a lid); Serpens

10 Libra; Bootes over Virgo; Corona arm (arms in V/W posture, or wheel); Serpens Caput (Head) or snake on staff (staff)

11 Virgo; Star Spica (Wheat) as her womb (womb); under Bootes

11p Galactic Pole; Coma (Hair), L-shaped (limb joint)

12 Leo; Rear-facing horse or lion (feline, inversion); Crater (Grail); Hydra (waterwork)

13 Leo; Feline; star Regulus on his heart (heart); Ursa (Bear) as sword or scythe (weapon)

14c Cista Head; Leo Minor, or Leo forepaws? (attributes not yet isolated)

14 Cancer; Y-shaped (sometimes a tree); Ursa Minor between two poles (ingress /egress); Lynx (sometimes a small canine or feline); Hydra head

15 Gemini; Sometimes twinned, standing on the galactic gate (sometimes a churn), holding Ursa’s head (rope); Canis; Canis Minor (sometimes canine), mace shape (smiting, sceptre); Lynx and Ursa Minor shared with 14 (bag)

15g Galactic Gate; Equatorial crossing, Gemini foot (sometimes a path), star Tejat; at Orion’s rear hand or club; at Auriga’s rear foot (sometimes a path).

Constellation figures are strong in typology and in sequence, due to their mythic labels. Their outlines are abstract and optional. Constellations are also strong on cosmology, thanks to the three equators and sets of poles; but their defining features are not on an axial grid, thus they do not form a stoneprint. Instead they are strongly bordered inside by an axial grid of fields.

The ecliptic pole or axial centre is unmarked. The celestial poles slowly move. The northern celestial pole is currently at Ursa Minor’s hoof (limb joint). The southern celestial south pole currently lies on a Dorado (Goldfish) fin (limb joint). Celestial poles cause summer and winter, always 90 degrees ahead of spring and autumn, as they move in tandem.

Everyone knows the sequence and features of some constellations, but no culture ever knew the extent of the archetypal structure that enables and sustains cultural expression, in a wide range of media, from myth to buildings and constellations. Stoneprint demonstrates that buildings, complexes and cities are the most tangible cultural media to express archetypal structure. They do not ‘come from’ constellations, but they also inform some variant constellations that we imprint on the sky.

The Galactic Pole (pG) is between Leo and Virgo, here near top centre.

The Galactic South Pole (pGs) is between Aquarius and Pisces, lower centre.

 

Six polar points anchor the cosmos

In the centre of the cosmic structure of nature and culture, are three polar axles, each with a northern and southern end. Cultural inspiration is ‘projected’ or ‘viewed’ from the ecliptic north or south pole, thus these two points always appear as one point in cultural media analysis.

Draco (Dragon) holds the ecliptic north pole in the bend on its back.

Ursa Minor (Small Bear, or small bull foreleg) over Cancer and Gemini, currently holds the celestial north pole near its hoof.

Ursa (Bear, or large bull foreleg) over Leo, held the celestial north pole on its back in Ages past.

4p Galactic South Pole (marked by a feature in 65% of works;

usually a limb joint or building juncture, such as a corner).

11p Galactic Pole (marked by a feature;

usually a limb joint or building juncture, such as a corner).

Both Ecliptic poles are always at the axial centre, atop one another. They are marked by a feature, usually a limb joint or building juncture, such as a corner.

The Celestial Pole is marked by a feature;

Usually a limb joint or building juncture.

The Celestial South Pole is marked by a feature,

usually a limb join or building juncture, such as a corner.

Some celestial poles in art or architecture, have a series of markers, providing for past and future Ages (see Gobekli Tepe House C). This expression is as subconscious as the types and the rest of the structure.

Milk Hill letters, 1991 08 02 (after Andrew King). They could be read as two Latin words in Masonic script: (o)||OPPONO||ASTOS||(o), I oppose deceptions (Hawkins 1993); or Oppono Artor, I oppose acts of artifice. The motto may imply that natural structure could not be faked, and that even concepts and words are creations of nature.

Nature spelled out a motto on crop tram lines

American tourist Erik Beckfjord had trampled out crude letters in wheat on the side of a hill, ‘Talk to us’, also implying a challenge; Who are you? Some days later, an apparent answer appeared nearby at Milk Hill, in what may be Latin letters. Prof Gerald Hawkins, author of a book on Stonehenge, assembled a team of twelve scholars to decipher the apparent answer. It could be two words in post-Augustan Latin, in celestial Masonic script, 55 meters long and 5.5 metres wide. The last letters, -OS, is an accusative plural, thus AST-OS means Acts of craft and cunning (plural of astus). Nature, in her infinite capacity, seemed to say, ‘I differ from fakes’. Disinformation, conscious assumptions and loose media consensus at the time had discredited crop circles as hoaxes, leading to general public scepticism, and to more actual hoaxes. However hoaxers snap crop stems, and cannot bend crops at the stem nodes, nor leave them growing as natural crop circles do (Silva 2002). Crop formations have long appeared throughout southern England and elsewhere in the world, some in intricate designs.

In Greek it speaks against corruption, for civil rights

If read as Greek, ‘astos’ means tamed, broken, conquered or bribed, as if by a foreign empire. In the context of genetically modified crops, the reading of ‘tamed’ also invokes the theme of language, perhaps warning of ‘mistranslation’ of DNA and natural structures in conscious use of language. A related Greek word means the civil rights immigrants, apparently relevant to the invasion of Europe by Syrian refugees.

 A Hebrew -Basque -Babylonian interpretation invokes towers

If read as Hebrew, right to left, the letters could spell Basque words for an Egyptian god and a Babylonian god; ‘Phehthi, Ptah, Creator; and Ea-cheche, Ea-Enki, Wisdom (Michael Green 2001). These gods or principles express type 15 Gemini, physical creation, and the adjacent structural point of type 15g, Galactic Gate. This gate lies at the crossing of the ecliptic and galactic equators, flanked by type 1 Taurus Orion, guardian of weather, lightning and towers, and his higher decan 1:16 Taurus Auriga (see Tarot trump 16, Tower struck by lightning). Types 1 is also expressed as Thoth (see Tarot trump 1, Juggler). An /Enki is one of the three cosmic equators (see Ur-Nanshe in the Early Civilisations chapter), two of which cross in the 15g Gate. Towers and languages are linked in the Babel myth (see a discussion of the Maikop silver bowl in Stoneprint).

Mirrored code for ‘hidden’, type 3c Cista Mystica

If read as a supposed Essene anti-Roman code, in mirrored letters (like Da Vinci used in his notebooks), if for examples L and N are interchanged, the shapes resemble UCCULUI NUNC, or OCCULUI NUNC, perhaps readable in Latin as ‘I have hidden now’ (Simon Burton 1995). This interpretation invokes type 3c Cista Mystica, and its opposite type 10c Cista Lid, which in artworks and buildings express concealment and potential discovery. The adjacent type 2 Taurus decan Perseus, which holds the star Algol, or Medusa Head, in a cloth bag or basket, has one foot on the Pleiades. Diviners reading livers stand with one foot on a rock, as the Etruscan diviner, Chalchas, is shown in art. Diviners establish a connection to earth, while sprouting wings of prophecy to transact between heaven and earth via natural structure reflected in a liver (see the Piacenza liver divination model double concentric sequence imprint in Stoneprint). In Nicolas Poussin’s painting, Shepherds of Arcadia (which also expresses a stoneprint as usual, see Mindprint p144-145), one of the shepherds stand on a rock, as the group read an inscription; Et in Arcadia Ego (Also in Arcadia I am). In the context of death art (ars moriendi), the tomb implies that Death is in paradise and in heaven, and that even gods die and resurrect.

Baigent, Leigh and Lincoln (1983) decoded the Arcadia motto as Tego Arcana Dei; ‘Begone, I conceal God’s secrets’. This may imply that God’s will is not easy to divine or to read, or may not have literal meaning. If a short motto on a rural tomb expresses divine secrets, it requires only practical experience to understand. As the Gospel says, children could enter the kingdom. The woman behind the shepherd places her hand between his shoulders, over his heart. She may be Sophia, Wisdom. Thus the enigmatic tomb in the famous painting includes a universal heart and womb, ‘also in Arcadia’; and all people have access to contentment, wisdom and innate knowledge.

The apparent Arcadian warning to ‘begone’, and the crop circle’s vague threat of ‘I oppose’, could indicate that their meanings lie in ‘Arcadia’, outside conscious logic, in the realm of archetype. Conscious assumptions and learned cunning must ‘begone’ if we want to read the book of nature. Among nature’s infinite pages of wisdom, are species, materials, events, all expressing archetype; and pictures that present archetype in abstract form. The format of shapes, geometry and figure abstracts, is familiar to culture as ‘sacred’ geometry, art, emblems and seals, which alchemists use to reveal the secrets of nature and culture. Perhaps crop circles are among the many reminders that some aspects of nature remain hidden to our limited consciousness, and that we glimpse these larger meanings by our subconscious, in dreams, visions and inspiration. Thus crop circles may be seen as natural dreams, requiring crafts such as divination, astrology, ritual and alchemy to raise some of its content to our conscious minds and our limited faculty of language.

Typical of heresy and debunking

If read in the context of response to the challenge (‘Talk to us’), and of fakes, theories and ‘debunking’, the words Oppono Astos, I oppose (or mirror) artifice, creation, images; or perhaps Oppono Artor, I oppose artifice or falsehood; recall the eternal academic tradition of anti-heretical treatises. Bishop Irenaeus of Leon (Lugdunum), France, in AD 180, published ‘Detection and Overthrow of False Knowledge’, a title now commonly abbreviated as ‘Against Heresy’. There was more Gnostic and esoteric writing to debunk at the time, than in our more sanitised, standardised, ‘educated and rational’culture. Some church fathers had attacked the Gospel of Judas, apparently on hearsay. The work was long lost, but recovered and published by national Geographic in recent years. Thus some crop circles evoke well-known meanings and attitudes, often directly relevant to the problem that crop circles pose to culture and knowledge, or to crafts and sciences. As in most mottos, the supposed truth is in the eyes and mind of the beholder. Theosophy, for example, a scientific approach to esoteric, has the motto ‘There is no religion higher than the truth’. What is artifice, and who are the artificers? Thus crop circles function as the classical oracles did in spreading riddles that exercised and educated the public mind.

Crop graffiti against Anthony

If read as Oppono Anton, the words mean ‘I oppose Anthony’, who had many opponents against his war for Cleopatra’s sake.

In Greece, votes were cast by taking two round kylix wine cup bases, or ostraca, each inscribed with a different name or response, and voters dropped one into a ballot vase, and one in a discard vase. The kylix bases were concave, black, and holed in the centre, resembling the three (0) sigils starting and dividing the two words in the crop formation. The ostraca were strung together and and counted, and the losing person was ‘ostracised’. Voting as often rigged by placing prepared kylix bases in the ballot vase, again invoking astos as ‘acts of cunning’.

Religious ostracising or ec-communciation implies banning from the kingdom of heaven, noted in the Bible (Jer34;6 Jos10;3,10 2Chr11;5,9 2Chr32;9). The circles may also spell out alpha and omega, first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. Again potsherds are involved, joined by skulls or gehninnom, implying a curse for being of ‘empty head’, a fool, raca, in the acheldama or field of blood, potters field outside Jerusalem, of foreigners. Tarot trump 13 pictures this allegorical field of potsherds, skulls and bones, under the hoofs of the horse of Death with a scythe (type 13 Leo, of death, weapons, war, bastions, water works and hearts). The themes in the various readings of this crop circle seem to express type 14c Cista Head, between types 14 Cancer and 13 Leo, at the archetypal position of the north celestial pole, between decans Ursa as a horse or bear, and Ursa Minor as a fox or bird. Type 14c is one of the four half-types, and require more study. Since secrets, revelation and texture are involved in 3c and 10c, the themes of ballots, ostracising, peer pressure, vote-rigging, prison, and keys to the kingdom may apply to 14c.

Crop bunk versus debunk

If viewed with the tramlines on top, and read as the bottom halves of modern capital letters, the formation could spell MEADON TALKS SHIT, referring to polemics between rival crop circle fakers. Hawkins and the academics found Oppono Astos to be post-Augustan Latin, but perhaps also referencing the month of August, in which the formation appeared. If it were a hoax, said the Hawkins team, they would like to quiz the claimed formation makers on historic changes in Latin grammar and some other issues.

If the three (0) sigils are read as Alpha, Present, and Omega, the formation could spell ‘Alpha Opposes Present Artificial Omega’, or ‘Original Opposes Currently Crafty End’. The punctuating circles could also picture scroll ends.

If the words are read as Ommo No Artor, Man is Not Creator, the formation’s motto also indicates that nature is supreme, or that nature opposes genetic modification (GM) of crops, or of stem cells, or of any DNA, by artificial means.

If the words are read as Oppono Arthor, I oppose Artur, the Bear, they could imply the constellation Draco, Dragon, who holds the celestial north pole in on its bent back; or Bootes, who in Egyptian myth and decans control Ursa and thus the celestial north pole (Bauval 2006). Or if king Arthur is implies, some post-Roman Dark Age politics linger among the UK’s Pictish and Norse graves, that modern fancy ascribe to supposed ‘druids’.

Crop genetic labelling?

If read in the context of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entering agriculture about the 1990s, the motto of ‘I oppose artifice’ could be a slogan against genetic engineering. Increased crop circles could even be a kind of DNA self-labelling function, as nature adjusts to enforced new varieties. Culture mimics this effect by labelling codes and regulations.

Windmill Hill crop circle time cluster collage reconstruction (after Borziani 2014, on Getmapping. Structuralist labels and axial grid by ED Furter). Borziani had artificially colour-coded the cut and pasted formation images, after chakras (wheels) reflexology theory. The new analysis demonstrates a more consistent, detailed, layered structure.

Windmill Hill crop circles, a canvas of controversy

Windmill Hill fields are just north-west of Avebury (see the cultural landscape map above). The hill itself has several Late Stone, Bronze and Iron Age barrows and walls. It is the largest known  causeway camp in Britain, provisionally dated BC 3700. One of the four Bronze Age round barrows may have borne a windmill. One may have been opened by William Stukeley in the early 1700s, to reveal a collared urn upside down over a cremation (Pastscape). Excavations before 1849 revealed seven skeletons, perhaps Saxon re-use, and a grape cup, and a stone battle axe. Mound2, named Picket Barrow, was excavated in 1935 after a rabbit exposed a cremation urn, and three stone axes, a bronze dolphin brooch of Roman date (perhaps Pictish, see the White horse notes below Milk Hill), Roman potsherds, and a perforated sarsen stone mace-head.

The field is at latitude n51 26’ 14.68” and longitude w1 52’ 35.35”, on the ‘Michael and Mary’ male and female ley-lines. The female initiation procession starting point could be a mile west, at a burial site with many tumuli, in former woodland. The male initiation procession starting point could be at the Sanctuary, a mile east of here, just beyond the artificial Silbury hill.

The sequence of archetypes in Windmill Hill crop circles in recent years is:

1 &2 Taurus; Two entwined ‘snakes’, S-shaped (twisted posture), 2009 05 25, in barley. Both have opposites at 8&9 wormholes, thus they express ‘worms’.

3c Cista Mystica; Thunderbolt, 2012 10 14, fake? In a small wildlife conservation patch of mixed crops for bird seed and ground nesting (woven texture). The farmer had politely asked people to avoid this field. It is right below Windmill hill (the natural type 3c of the site) and its ‘fort’ structures, and due north of the invisible centre (as one of the cista axes often is). See also the ‘extras’ between 14 and 15.

3 Aries; (blank, or expressed after 2013?).

4 Pisces; Square (rectangular) of Koch series fractals, 1999 07 16. Three of the four Pisces cardinals in this field (see 7, and 15), express rectangles.

4p Galactic S. Pole; Edge (limb joint) of type 5:20.

5:20 Aquarius; Hexagonal flower, 2010 07 26. Comet Ison? Mayan date 0.0.0, or two sets of 13 circles for 13.0.0.0.0, or outer two sets of 14 or 18 circles for 12.19.18.14.18, or 2011 10 28, a Mayan Tzolkin end date. The central large thin circle could express comet Ison near the sun on 2013 11 28. Mercury and Venus positions confirm that date, as the researcher Drew noted.

5:21 Aquarius; Two pairs of snakes biting tails, the inner heads offset by 90 degrees, 2011 07 26? 2012 10 14? A median ring holds two planets, the larger one ringed; Saturn and Uranus, or Jupiter and Mars on Mayan date outward 13.0.2.14.18, or 2015 10 5 /7?

6 Capricornus; Three-legged spiral, triskelon, 1996 07 29.

7 Sagittarius; Square cross cloudburst (manifestation), 2003 07 26? Formed in rain, in a natural dew pond depression, in barley. Some stalk breakage, mud, messy smaller circles, path lines between inner and outer features, widths inconsistent (Fussel and Dike).

8 &9 Scorpius; Two wormholes, 2006. Opposite 1 &2 ‘worms’.

10c Cista lid; Horslip long barrow, stones mostly removed to Horslip (Oslip stream) bridge, and to Swan Collage garden walls in Bray Street. Unploughed rectangle with 50m side ditches, chalk blocks revetments. Mound of chalk, humus  and ox bones, including two antler spades, topped by sandstone slabs from the Mendips. Excavated 1959.

10 Libra; Head of a small chakras body, in crescent (arms up), as a staff (staff), 2012 07 25.

10 Libra B Head of a large chakras body, in crescent (arms up), as a staff (staff), 2004 or 2014?

11 Virgo; Central circle (womb) of a large chakras body, 2004 or 2014?

11p Galactic Pole; Edge (limb joint) of an S-shaped with two yin-yang S-shapes.

12 Leo; Centre (heart) of the inner of two linked double spirals (concentric), 2011 07 13. A pair of single spirals were formed at Chaddenwick hill on the same day.

13 Leo; Edge of two small concentrics (interior) overlapping, far from the cluster centre (egress is more typical of 14). There may be a small spacing error in the collage reconstruction here, or opposite at at 5:21, to show part of the underlying type 6.

14 Cancer; Triangle or tetrahedron (Y-shaped), small (small), near the centre (ingress/egress).

ExtraA; Pentagon thorns in ring thorus, fake? 2003.

ExtraB; All five formations off the axial grid (four between types 14 and 15, and one at 3c), are in irregular positions in the archetypal sequence.

ExtraC; The ‘extras’ lie just south of the hill, perhaps planned as a photo backdrop.

ExtraD;  Hexagon loops or ball in a net, infilled in phases, 2002 07 18.

15 Gemini; Clown face, 2009 08 06. Four dumbbells (maces or sceptres) as four years? Near the centre was a small clump of four crop knobs, perhaps four of the five poles of this formation’s own stoneprint (see inset). Outer orbit of eight planets and comet Ison on 2013 11 28? Drew compared the inner orbits of a meteorite or comet Ison, earth-moon, Venus, Mars and Mercury.

The axial centre or ‘Ecliptic Pole’ is unmarked, as usual. The Celestial Pole is on type 14’s edge (limb joint), east of the axial centre, placing ‘summer’ in Leo-Cancer, thus ‘spring’ and the cultural time-frame in Age Taurus-Aries, confirmed by celestial north, and the hill with its ancient features. An Age Taurus time-frame is typical of alchemical works of all ages. An Age Aries time-frame is typical of most artworks and building sites of Age Pisces (of the last 2000 years). All works usually express the time-frame of the previous Age. The transitional frame thus may express our current transition, two archetypal Ages ahead of the cosmic frame of nature, and of most cultures. The time-frame of natural artworks is likely to change to Pisces or Pisces-Aquarius after 2016.

Map of long barrows, round barrows and stone circles in the larger Avebury and Silbury area, west of Marlborough (after Hardav. Stoneprint labels and axial grid by ED Furter). The map is somewhat inexact, as the axial grid points indicate. Academic sources confirm that some barrows have been removed by farmers. See the small stoneprint in the Avebury area in a separate map. This area is also the core of crop circle formations.

Avebury and Silbury cultural cluster

The sequence of archetypes in the Avebury and Silbury landscape is (with some of the known relevant attributes and known frequencies in brackets):

1 Taurus; Sanctuary bank and ditch (pit 13%), perhaps consciously a bull eye (bovid 19%).

2 Taurus; ‘Horn’ points (bovid 19%) of two tumuli rows from 1 (cluster 14%). On both sides of the Roman road lie seven tumuli (cluster 14%), perhaps consciously the Pleiades. However in a star map the horns point towards 15 Gemini.

3 Aries; Tumulus (long or bent neck).

4 Pisces; Square bank or ditch (rectangular 20%).

4p Gal.S.Pole; Falkner’s stone circle (juncture).

5:20 Aquarius; Eastern end tumulus of a row (tailcoat head), at a long bank (large).

5:21 Aquarius; Western end of a long bank (tailcoat head, large).

6 Capricornus; Avebury circle, with two inner circles (double-headed), near the centre of the axes (ingress /egress).

7 Sagittarius; Windmill Hill, oval-shaped (unfolding 17%).

7g Galactic Centre: Oslip stream (water 15%). [And crop circle cluster, see image above].

8 Scorpius; Small oval structure

9 Scorpius; South Street long barrow

10 Libra; Beckhampton long barrow; and Beckhampton tumulus (market?).

10c Cista Lid; Crossroads?

11 Virgo; Silbury Hill, massive artificial mound (womb) probably with a passage.

11p Gal.Pole; Kennet river A4 Road bridge (juncture), near Swallowhead river bend (juncture).

12 Leo; Langdene circle tumulus (interior).

13 Leo; West Kennet long barrow (interior), perhaps of a chief.

14 Cancer; East Kennet long barrow, far out (ingress /egress).

15 Gemini; ?, near East Kennet bridge.

The ecliptic pole or axial centre is unmarked. The celestial poles may be south and north of the axial centre, placing summer in Leo-Cancer, thus spring and the time-frame in Age Taurus-Aries, about BC 1500, long before the work as usual. The former Taurean spring seems confirmed by the prominent cluster of tumuli at types 1 and 2. The Arian Arian winter seems confirmed by the large size of Avebury as type 6 Capricornus (see Stonehenge ‘sentinel’ stones at winter and summer solstices in Age Aries; Stoneprint p256 -262)

The subconscious axes usually do not correspond with any observational astronomical directions (as at Magdalenburg graves mound, see Stoneprint p270 -273). This landscape is not an observatory or star map. Some features may have been intended as constellations, and some may be aligned to a star or planet, thus a seasonal, or a longer planetary period calendar (such as the Venus eight-year Olympic cycle). However no astronomical feature was planned to be in any comprehensive spatial context. All five layers of structuralist expression are subconscious to artists, architects, builders and users of culture.

The general theme in this cultural landscape could be type 6 Capricornus, typical of poles, winter, scapegoats, U-shaped or rounded camps, and gardens (see an Assyrian camp, and the Narmer palette, in Stoneprint p195 -196).

The stoneprint analysis score would be low, for lack of known distinguishing features, and for the large number of small ‘extra’ tumuli. The site deserves further structuralist study.

 

Crop circles have natural and cultural histories

1678: ‘No mortal man’ could have made crop circles

A woodcut broadside pamphlet of 1678 reported on the Hertfordshire Mowing Devil, with an illustration of a creature with a scythe. The text describes plants that have been flattened, not cut. Under the heading, Strange news out of Hartfordshire, the tale unfolds. “A typical farmer bargained with a poor mower about cutting down three half acres of oats. But the mower asked too much. The farmer swore that the devil should mow it rather. So that night the crop of oats showed as if it were all aflame, but next morning appeared neatly mowed by the devil or some infernal spirit, that no mortal man could do this in one night. The oats lie now in the field, and the owner is in fear, and has no power to fetch it.”

1686: Prof Plot, father of crop circle research

Prof Robert Plot, LLD, was the first crop circle investigator. In his book, Natural History of Staffordshire, the Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, and Prof of Chemistry at the University of Oxford, reports digging into soil under 50 crop circles. He noted that animals tended to stay away from crop figures. He also cited several by then already historical reports. Plot hypothesized that crop circles were formed by hollow thunderbolts, or deer, or mosses. His most practical note was that crop yields in former circles, increased by up to 30% for several years. Many of his findings were confirmed in the 1900s. Plot’s record was revived in the 1980s. Plot was also one of the first palaeontologists. He had published evidence of the first fossil bone, now known as part of a dinosaur, in 1676. Formations were already well known in the fields of Staffordshire. Some grass formations are now supposed to be caused by a fungus, perhaps after weakening of nodes by another cause.

1880: No firm conclusions on fairy rings

Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1880) noted that Matthew Hopkins of Manningtree, Essex, was witch-finder in the counties of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk and Huntingdonshire. He had hanged sixty reputed witches in one year in Essex alone. Dr Z Grey noted that about 3500 people suffered death for witchcraft between 1643 and 1661. The dictionary noted that no firm conclusions were reached regarding a cause or meaning of fairy rings.

1790: Hints of natural causes of crop circles

A series of letters by several authors in Gentleman’s Magazine (1790 -1793), under the heading ‘“Hints towards natural history of fairy rings, include many descriptions of crop circles and geometric formations, with some diagrams. The articles apparently confuse crop circles in grass or grain, and fungus rings, yet there may be a natural link. One letter notes a paper published by the Royal Society that attributes fairy rings to lightning.

1880: A spectrosopist looks at crop circles

A letter on crop circles in Surrey by early photographer and spectroscopist John Rand Capron, titled Storm effects, was published in the journal Nature (vol 22, p290-291, 29 July 1880). Capron wrote: “The storms about this part of Surrey have been lately local and violent, and the effects produced in some instances curious. At a neighbour’s farm, we found a field of standing wheat considerably knocked about, in patches forming circular spots… all with a few standing stalks as a centre, some prostrate stalks with their heads arranged pretty evenly along a direction, forming a circle around the centre, and outside these a circular wall of stalks which had not suffered. I send a sketch made on the spot… The soil is a sandy loam on green-sand. The crop is vigorous, with strong stems. I could not trace locally any circumstances accounting for the peculiar forms of the patches in the field, nor indicating whether it was wind or rain, or both. They were to me suggestive of some cyclonic wind action, and may perhaps have been noticed elsewhere by some of your readers.” Capron was an early scientific photographer, solicitor, and coroner. He had a private observatory at Hog Back ridge, West of Guildford, near these corp circles.

1805: Swirled wheat in Ohio

In ‘The Sherrard Family of Steubenville (1880s, p53-54), Robert Andrew Sherrard and Thomas Johnson Sherrard note that in 1805, there was a rattlesnake incident while harvesting a wheat field three miles from Smithfield, Jefferson County, Ohio. He notes in passing a circle of flattened, swirled wheat, now named an RDF-type crop circle. “The wheat in this field was blue stem, the first of the sort I had seen. As the ground was newly cleared, this new crop lay twisted and swirled in all directions, which made it hard to reap.”

1932: The first crop circle photograph

Archaeologist Eliot Cecil Curwen published the first crop circle photograph with a short piece in Sussex Notes and Queries, published by the local Archaeological Society. Curwen was a surgeon and ‘gentleman scientist’ who wrote two books and many articles on Sussex. He noted that in August 1932 he was taken to see a group of circles in a field of barley below Bow Hill, visible from Neolithic barrows on the grassy summit. He was interested in crop marks revealing more possible archaeological remains below. He took a photograph, sketched their approximate size and positions in the field, but found no subsoil factors when he dug in the circles. The crop was bent, beaten down, or ‘lodged’ in regular patterns. The largest circle was about 40m diameter. One of the circles overlapped a path and fence, and the intersection appears to have prevented the circle from continuing in the adjoining field.

1963: A crater and oval crop circles

The famous astronomer Sir Patrick Moore wrote a letter to New Scientist (1963 07 15) about crop formations at Manor Farm, Charlton, Donhead Wiltshire, near Shaftsbury, Dorset. He found a round crater and flattened corp circles, perhaps due to a meteorite impact, in a field of potatoes and barley. These were also reported in three articles in The Times. The crater was 8ft wide. A cow nearby had its hide peeling, as if scorched. Moore noted several circles of flattened wheat nearby, circular or elliptical. “One circle, very well defined, was an oval fifteen yards long and four and three quarter yards broad… with spiral flattening, and… a circular area in the centre in which the wheat had not been flattened.”

1960s, 1990s: More crop formations in mechanised fields

In the 1960s, crop circle numbers increased, perhaps partly due to mechanised ploughing and planting. In 1991, hoaxers make some changes and additions to some crop circles. In the 1990s there was a dramatic upturn in crop circle numbers, perhaps partly  due to more precise mechanised planting, or to fertiliser. Lines become more prominent among curves.

Crop circles remain one of the major challenges to both natural and human sciences, or ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ sciences. Their eventual mutual resolution may change some of our conscious assumptions. Such changes are as rare, as gradual, as rationalised, and as undocumented in science as they are in popular culture.

 

SOURCES AND REFERENCES

Allen, RH. 1899 Star names and their meanings. Lost Library, Glastonbury

Anderson, PS; Canadian Crop Circle Research Network (CCCRN), website

Bauval, R. 2006 Egypt code. Century

Borziani, F. 2014. http://www.cropcirclestories.com/index.php/component/wisrogis/?view=map&id=19&lat=51.36200000&lon=-1.85100094444&zoom=14&formation=uk%20_%202003-08-04%20_%2030%20adamsgrave&country=uk&Itemid=278 [click all the years in the list to see the recent crop circles restored in the collage]. Or http://www.thecropcircles.eu/crop_geometries.htm or fabio@uniquefragments.com

California Center For Crop Circle Studies, magazine [defunct]

Collins, A, and Cotterell, M. 1995. Mayan prophecies. Element, Shaftesbury

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Crop Cirle Secrets, www.cropcirclesecrets.org

De Santillana G, Von Deschend H. 1969. Hamlet’s Mill: An essay on myth and the frame of time. Boston: Gambit

Del Campo, J. Crop Circles: Messages, Art or ‘Something Completely Different?’

Dodwell, GF. 2010. Obliquity of the ecliptic; Ancient, mediaeval, and modern observations; in Setterfield, http://www.setterfield.org/Dodwell_manuscript_1.html

Furter, E. 2014. Mindprint, the subconscious art code. Lulu.com, USA

Furter, E. 2015 A. Art and Rock art express the structure of culture.  On Graham Hancock, Author of the Month, Sept. https://grahamhancock.com/furtere1/

Furter, E. 2015 B. Art is magic. Expression 10, Dec. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2015 C. Gobekli Tepe, between rock art and art. Expression 9. Atelier Etno, Italy. Also in: Rock art Where, When, to Whom. Ed. E Anati 2016

Furter, E. 2015 D. Mindprint in mushroom /psiclocybin, peyote /mescalin, sugar, and chocolate art. On www.mindprintart.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2016 A. Colonial artists re-style the same characters. Expression 14. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2016. Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities. Four Equators Media, Johannesburg, South Africa. Extracts on www.stoneprint.wordpress.com

Furter, E. 2017 A. Pregnant is the most consistent typological gender. Expression 15, March. Atelier Etno, Italy

Furter, E. 2017 B. Recurrent characters in rock art reveal objective meaning. Expression 16, June. Atelier Etno, Italy

Fussel, M, and Dike, S; Crop circle wisdom, website; http://cropcirclewisdom.com/crop-circle-diaries/

Gigal, A. 2016. Megalithomania lecture on Giza island; http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/2016/05/megalithomania-antoine-gigal-the-divine-island-of-giza-3355165.html

Glickman. M, http://www.michaelglickmanoncropcircles.com/blog/the-first-five-crop-circles-of-2017/

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Gospel of Thomas, Gnostic MS

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Jung, CG. 1964. Man and his symbols. Dell

Knight, C, and Butler, A. 2010. Civilisation One. Watkins

Leach, E. 1970. Claude Levi-Strauss. University of Chicago Press

Levinson, WC. Increased fertility of seeds from crop formations. BLT Reports

Martineau, J. Crop Circle Geometry (out of print)

Mason, J; Greatdreamns website, JMason4557@aol.com

Neugebauer, Otto; and R Parker. 1969 Egyptian astronomical texts 3; Decans, planets, constellations and zodiacs. Brown Univ

Northcote, J. 2003 Spatial distribution of England’s crop circles: Using GIS to investigate a geo-spatial mystery. Edith Cowan University, Australia

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Pringle, Lucy; what on earth, http://www.cropcirclemovie.com/greatdeal

Seurig M, and W Baumann. Prehistoric Mathematics & British Crop Circles

Silva, F. 2002 Secrets in the fields. Hampton Road Publishing, hrpc@hrpub.com

Talbott, Nancy; Plant abnormalities indicate plasma discharge in 2009 UK crop cirles. BLT Research Team Inc; BLT Reports

Temple, R. 2003 Netherworld. Random House

Thomas, A, and M Leigh; Vital signs: a complete guide to crop circle mystery and why it is not a hoax (website)

Thomas, Andy; website, www.truthagenda.org

Tyler, S et al. 2009 Large reaction rate enhancement in formation of ultra-thin gold-silicon eutectic layers. With Matthews, Carolyn Sawyer, D Frank Ogletree, Zuzanna Liliental-Weber, DC Chrzan, and Junqiao Wu. In Physical Review Letters, http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i9/e096102

Vigay, P; www.cropcircleresearch.com/articles/alienface.html

William of Newburgh, 1290, Chronicle

Wylie, Alison. 1989. Archaeological cables and tacking: the implications of practice for Bernstein’s options, beyond objectivism and relativism. Phil of Social Sciences 19, n1, March

Zipf, GK. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Addison-Wesley

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